The "Chernobyl effect" on Gorbachev was so evident that even Ronald Reagan recognized it. When the two leaders met at Reykjavik in October 1986, just half a year later, Reagan wondered if Chernobyl might be "behind Gorbachev's new eagerness to discuss abolishing nuclear weapons."[34] Secretary of State George Shultz was also "struck by how deeply affected Gorbachev appeared to be by the Chernobyl accident" as late as May 1988, when he and Reagan and their spouses spent an evening at the Gorbachev's dacha at the conclusion of a summit meeting in Moscow: "It was obvious from the evening that Chernobyl has left a strong anti-nuclear streak in Gorbachev's Thinking" [35] This interpretation has been confirmed by Gorbachev's top foreign-policy aides, although they point out that Gorbachev's antinuclearism was present even before the Chernobyl disaster.[36]

ゴルバチョフに対する「チェルノブイリ効果」は、ロナルド・レーガンにもわかるほど明白なものだった。半年後の1986年10月の両首脳がレイキャビクで会談したとき、レーガンはゴルバチョフの核廃絶を議論しようという強い意志の背景には、チェルノブイリがあるのではないかと思った。ジョージ・シュルツ国務長官も、遅くとも1998年5月のモスクワでの首脳会談の終わりに彼とレーガンと彼らの夫人たちが、ゴルバチョフのダーチャで夜を過ごしたときまでには、チェルノブイリ事故にゴルバチョフが深く影響されていることに衝撃を受けていた。「チェルノブイリ事故はゴルバチョフの考えに、反核の傾向を残したことは、その夜からも明らかだった。」 この解釈はゴルバチョフの外交政策に関する側近たちによって確認された。ただし、彼らはゴルバチョフの反核が、チェルノブイリ事故以前からあったと指摘している。

[34] Ronald Reagan, "An American Life, p.676, 1990.
[35] Shultz to Reagan, memorandum, reprinted in Reagan, "An American Life,", pp.710-711
[36] See, for example, the comments by Aleksandr Bessmertnykh, then deputy foreign minister, and Anatolii Cherniaev, Gorbachev's personal foreign-policy aide, in William C Wohlforth, ed., Witnesses to the End of the Cold War (Baltimore Md., 1996), 33, 37; also Aleksei Arbatov, interview by author, Cambridge, Mass, 18 August, 1993.

[Matthew Evangelista: "Unarmed Forces", p.273]
The price of the Chernobyl catastrophe was overwhelming, not only in human terms, but also economically. Even today, the legacy of Chernobyl affects the economies of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Some even suggest that the economic price for the USSR was so high that it stopped the arms race, as I could not keep building arms while paying to clean up Chernobyl.

This is wrong. My declaration of January 15, 1986, is well known around the world. I addressed arms reduction, including nuclear arms, and I proposed that by the year 2000 no country should have atomic weapons. I personally felt a moral responsibility to end the arms race. But Chernobyl opened my eyes like nothing else: it showed the horrible consequences of nuclear power, even when it is used for non-military purposes. One could now imagine much more clearly what might happen if a nuclear bomb exploded. According to scientific experts, one SS-18 rocket could contain a hundred Chernobyls.



[Mikhail Gorbachev:"Turning Point at Chernobyl"(2006/04/14)]
The Chernobyl catastrophe consumed the Politburo's energies for three months. It shattered ossified bureaucratic structures and the old militarized mentality to the core. Gorbachev was humiliated by the international scandal and indignant at the rigidity of bureaucratic structures, and he chose to scapegoat the military-industrial complex. The most secret and impenetrable part of the Soviet system, its nuclear program, became the object of blistering criticism, its heroic and romantic image tarnished beyond repair. Military scientists and the military command were shaken, too. It was the first time that Soviet armed forces participated in rescue and decontamination operation on such a large scale. To the head of the General Staff, Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev, Chernobyl was reminiscent of the Great Patriotic War. But, instead the lessons of vigilance and military buildup, the catastrophe revealed that the military doctrine of "victory" in nuclear war was a hollow hulk. And it dawned on the military command what a disaster it would be to have even limited nuclear warfare in a Europe studded with atomic reactions. Akhromeyev recalled that after Chernobyl "a nuclear danger for our people ceased to be abstraction. It became a palpable reality."

Chernobyl's effect on the Soviet political leadership was greater than any other single event since the Cuban missile crisis. "We learned what nuclear war can be," Gorbachev said to the Politburo. ....

チェルノブイリの大惨事は、 3ヶ月の間の政治局のエネルギーを消費した。それが硬直した官僚機構や古い軍事精神を中心まで粉々にした。ゴルバチョフは国際的スキャンダルに屈辱を味わうことになり、官僚機構の硬直性に怒り、軍産複合体をスケープゴートにすることにした。ソ連体制で最も秘密で、最も不可侵なものである核計画は膨大な批判の対象となり、その英雄的でロマンティックなイメージは修復不可能に損なわれた。軍科学者と軍司令部も揺さぶられた。これまでソ連軍がこのような大規模な救助及び除染活動に従事したことはなかった。参謀総長セルゲイ・アフロメーエフ元帥にとって、チェルノブイリは大祖国戦争を彷彿とさせるものだった。しかし、警戒強化と軍備増強という教訓のかわりに、チェルノブイリの大惨事は核戦争に勝利するという軍事ドクトリンが、張子の虎であることを明らかにした。そしてそれは、核の応酬の可能性をはらんだ欧州限定核戦争の災厄がいかなるものであるかを、軍司令部に思い知らせることとなった。アフロメーエフは「チェルノブイリ後は、我が国民への核の危険性は抽象的なものではなくなった。それは触れることができる現実のものとなった」と述べた。


[Vladislav M. Zubok: "Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev", 2009]
"The accident at Chernobyl showed again what an abyss will open if nuclear war befalls mankind," Gorbachev said. "For inherent in the nuclear stockpiles are thousands upon thousands of disasters far more horrible than the Chernobyl one." As a result, the Soviet government has decided to extend a unilateral moratorium on nuclear tests until Aug. 6, the 41st anniversary of the Hiroshima attack, Gorbachev said.


[WILLIAM J. EATON:"Gorbachev Urges A-Plant Warnings : Denounces Reporting on Chernobyl, Extends Nuclear-Test Moratorium" (1986/06/15) on LA Times]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/04/21 08:17 | Comment(4) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


Atomic Age エントリ




[The Lancet Vol 127 No 3277 Jun 19, 1886, p.1175 "CAN IMAGINATION KILL?"]

The writer of the article in our contemporary, we think wrongly, brings forward two remarkable instances of what may be regarded as practical jokes with melancholy terminations. In the case of the convict delivered up to the scientist for the purpose of a psychological experiment (the man was strapped to a table and blindfolded, ostensibly to he bled to death; a syphon containing water was placed near his head, and the fluid was allowed to trickle audibly into a vessel below it, at the same time that a trifling , scratch with a needle was inflicted on the culprit'a neck ; it is said that death occurred at the end of six minutes), fear must have played no inconsiderable share in the fatal result, and we do not knew whether all the vital organs were in sound condition, though they were presumably so.

Lancet (1886)---台(table)- (6分後)
Items of Interest (1886)---台(table)- (6分後)
Chambers's Journal (1887)------
Chambers's Journal, Volume 64 By William Chambers, Robert Chambers (1887)-フランス(の医師)数年前(ナポレオン3世の許可)台(table)- (6分後)
Columbus Medical Journal (1889)------
Flammarion (1900)[F}-コペンハーゲン1750台(table)7-8リットル
Flammarion (1900)[E]-英国前世紀台(table)7-8クォート
フラマリオン 著 ; 大沼十太郎 訳(1924)-英國先世紀テーブル六、七升
Toledo News Bee (1922)-英国の医科大学-心臓近くの皮膚手術台-
St. Petersburg Times (1926)-フランス(の医師)数年前動脈台(table)- (5分)
Arthur Brisbane (1930)---裸足の裏全体椅子-
谷口雅春 (1932)--或る時頸部椅子全身の血液の三分の二
PHILADELPHIA NEUROLOGICAL SOCIETY (1935)-インド(の医学誌)-四肢の先端台(table)-
谷口雅春 (1962)--あるとき頸椎椅子全身の血液の三分の二
広告屋のネタ帳 (1998)-アメリカ----
笠巻勝利 (1999)ブアメードオランダ1883足の親指ベッド全身の1/3

フランス語で探すと、Lancetの記事の翌年(1887)に、Albert de Rochas d'Aiglunが「英国」の出来事として、Lancetの記事にはない「少なくとも7〜8パイントの血液を失った」を追加した記述が見つかった。
Le premier est le cas classique d'un condamné anglais du siècle dernier, livré à des médecins pour servir à une expérience psychologique, dont la mort fut le résultat. Ce malheureux avait été solidement attaché à une table avec de fortes courroies; on lui avait bandé les yeux, puis on lui avait annoncé qu'il allait être saigné au cou et qu'on laisserait couler son sang jusqu'à épuisement complet; après quoi, une piqûre insignifiante fut pratiquée à son épiderme avec la pointe d'une aiguille, et un siphon déposé près de sa tête, de manière à faire couler sur son cou un filet d'eau qui tombait sans interruption avec un bruit léger, dans un bassin placé à terre. Au bout de six minutes, le supplicié, convaincu qu'il avait dû perdre au moins sept à huit pintes de sang, mourut de peur.


[Rochas A.: L'état de crédulité, Revue scientifique, 1887, Albert de Rochas d'Aiglun:"Les états superficiels de l'hypnose", 1893 ]


posted by Kumicit at 2014/04/11 09:27 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



豪州の国立保健医療研究評議会( NHMRC )は、ホメオパシーが有効であることを信頼できる証拠はないと結論したレビューのドラフトペーパーを公表した。
The draft paper by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) assessed research into the effectiveness of the alternative medicine on 68 health conditions and concluded “there is no reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective”.

Homeopathy claims to “let likes cure like,” by using highly diluted forms of the ailment it is treating. The Australian Homeopathic Association states the practice treats patients as a “whole person, taking into account personality, lifestyle and hereditary factors as well as the history of the disease.”

But the NHMRC review, conducted by a working committee of medical experts, said it had no impact on a range of conditions and illnesses including asthma, arthritis, sleep disturbances, cold and flu, chronic fatigue syndrome, eczema, cholera, burns, malaria and heroin addiction.

For the 68 conditions - including those listed - the review either concluded definitively that homeopathy was not more effective than a placebo, or at the very least there was no reliable evidence to suggest it was.

豪州の国立保健医療研究評議会( NHMRC )によるドラフトペーパーは、68の症状健に対する代替医療の有効性の研究を評価し、 「ホメオパシーが有効であることを信頼できる証拠はない」と結論した。


しかし、医療専門家の作業部会が実施したNHMRCのレビューは、喘息、関節炎、睡眠障害、風邪やインフルエンザ、慢性疲労症候群、アトピー性皮膚炎、コレラ、火傷、マラリア、ヘロイン中毒などの症状や病気に何の効果もないと述べている。レビューは、これらを含む 68の症状や病気にホメオパシーがプラセボ以上の効果がないか、効果があるという信頼できる証拠はないと明確に結論した。

[Helen Davidson:"Homeopathy is bunk, study says" (2014/04/08) on The Guardian]

University of New South Walesの医学部名誉教授で免疫学者であるJohn Dwyerはレビューを歓迎するとともに、ホメオパシーがワクチンとして使われることの危険性を指摘した。
“In my point of view as an immunologist, the most serious issue was the spreading of the concept that homeopathic vaccinations were harmless and just as good as orthodox vaccinations. People who believe that are not protecting themselves and their children,” he said.

Homeopathic “vaccinations” are offered for standard diseases, as well as some that there are no medica vaccines for, said Dwyer.

“Homeopathic vaccines were being offered for HIV, TB, Malaria… none of them were effective,” he said.

豪州医師会(Australian Medical Association)のWestern Australia支部長Richard Choongも同様の指摘をしている。

“In a lot of cases it can be considered dangerous and can risk people’s lives, and vaccination is a classic example of this,” said Choong.

“Patients have been led to believe that they’ve been vaccinated in some way, using homeopathy, when there’s no evidence to say they have been immunised against a disease which may cause harm to them if they were to catch it.”

posted by Kumicit at 2014/04/09 08:42 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Quackery | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



HB 4482, as introduced in the House on January 14, 2014, designated the woolly mammoth as the official state fossil of South Carolina. According to The State (April 2, 2014), the proposal was due to eight-year-old paleontology enthusiast Olivia McConnell, in part because "its teeth were one of the first vertebra[t]e fossils found in North America, dug up by slaves on a South Carolina plantation in 1725."

Amended to specify that the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) would be the official state fossil, HB 4482 passed the House on a 94-3 vote on February 19, 2014, and proceeded to the Senate. The Senate Committee on Judiciary tinkered slightly with the language of the bill, but reported it favorably to the Senate. When the bill reached the Senate floor in late March 2014, however, controversy ensued.

2014年1月14日に、サウスカロライナ州下院に提案されたHB4482はウーリーマンモスの化石を州公式化石に指定する。TheStateの報道によれば、提案は8歳の化石ファンOlivia McConnellによるもので、「その歯は北米で最初に発見された脊椎動物の化石で、1725年にサウスカロライナ州のプランテーションで奴隷によって掘り当てらてた」ことも理由である。

Columbian mammothを州公式化石に指定するように修正されて、HB4482は2014年2月19日に94-3で州下院本会議を通過し、州上院に送られた。州上院司法委員会は州法案の記述を少し修正して、支持意見を付けて州上院本会議へ送った。2014年3月遅くに州法案が州上院本会議に到達して、問題が起きた。

On March 25, 2014, while HB 4482 was under discussion, Kevin L. Bryant (R-District 3) sought to amend the bill to designate Genesis 1:24-25, which describes the sixth day of creation, as the official state passage from an ancient historical text. His amendment was ruled out of order as introducing "new and independent matter." NPR (April 2, 2014) reported that Bryant explained on his website, "I attempted to recognize the creator."

2014年3月25日のHB4482の審議で、共和党District3のKevin L. Bryant州上院議員が、6日間の創造を記述した創世記1章24-25節を古文書記述の州公式記述に指定しようとした。彼の修正案は「新規かつ独立な事項」として除外された。NPRの報道によれば、Bryant州上院議員は自分のサイトで「私は創造主を認識させようとした」と説明した。

Regrouping, Bryant sought to amend the bill to add "as created on the Sixth Day with the other beasts of the field" after each instance of "mammoth." He told the Greenville News (April 1, 2014), "Since we're dealing with the fossil of the woolly mammoth then this amendment would deal with the beginning of the woolly mammoth." He also suggested that the bill would survive constitutional scrutiny "because it doesn't point to a single religion."

The bill with Bryant's amendment, along with a further amendment establishing "a moratorium on the enactment of legislation establishing official state symbols and emblems," proposed by a senator who told The State, "It's past time for the state of South Carolina to recognize we have enough state official whatevers," was passed by the Senate on a 35-0 vote on April 2, 2014. 

考え直したBryant州上院議員は「マンモス」に「他の獣とともに創造の6日間に創造された」と加える修正を試みた。彼はGreenville Newsに対して、「我々はウーリーマンモスについて論じており、この修正はウーリーマンモスの起源に関するものだ。一つの宗教を指定したものではないので、憲法問題にはあたらない」と述べた。


[A mammoth debate in South Carolina(2014/04/04) on NCSE]


posted by Kumicit at 2014/04/06 06:35 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | News | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする