リベリア政府は首都モンロヴィアの半島地形なスラムWest Pointの封鎖隔離を解除した。
MONROVIA, Liberia − Liberia’s government announced Friday night that it would lift an Ebola quarantine on a large slum here in the capital, 10 days after attempts to cordon off the neighborhood from the rest of the city sparked deadly clashes and fueled doubts about President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s ability to handle the outbreak.

Residents of the neighborhood, West Point, will be free to move in and out starting Saturday at 6 a.m., said Lewis Brown, the minister of information. The army, which had pressed for the quarantine and took the lead in enforcing it in the first two days, will be removed from West Point, leaving only the police, Mr. Brown said.

A nationwide curfew, from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m., will remain in place, he said.

リベリア政府は2014年8月29日夜に、首都の大規模スラムに対するエボラ封鎖隔離を解除すると発表した。この封鎖隔離は10日前に首都のその他の地域から切り離し、死者を出す衝突を起こし、Ellen Johnson Sirleaf大統領のアウトブレイク対処能力に疑問を抱かせていた。

「West pointの住人は2014年8月30日6:00以降は自由に出入りできる。封鎖隔離を実行し、当初2日間は事態を主導していた軍は撤退し、警察だけを残すことになる。全国の21:00-06:00の夜間外出禁止令は継続する」と、Lewis Brown情報相は述べた。

[NORIMITSU ONISHIAUG: "Quarantine for Ebola Lifted in Liberia Slum" (2014/08/24) on NY Times]

Ms. Johnson Sirleaf ordered the quarantine on Aug. 20, rejecting the advice of international Ebola experts and her own health officials who argued that such a large-scale quarantine, especially one led by the military, would be unmanageable and could exacerbate the spread of the disease. The quarantine immediately led to running battles between residents and the security forces; Shakie Kamara, a 15-year-old boy caught in the violence, died after suffering bullet wounds to both legs.

During the quarantine, many residents have sneaked out of West Point by paying bribes to soldiers and police officers. Prices of food and basic goods have doubled, causing living conditions in the slum to degrade further.

「そのような大規模な封鎖隔離、特に軍によるものは、管理不能であり、感染拡大を悪化させる」という国際的なエボラ専門家や政府保健当局者の助言を無視して、Ellen Johnson Sirleaf大統領は2014年8月20日に、封鎖隔離を命令した。封鎖隔離はただちに住民と治安部隊の戦いを招いた。この衝突に巻き込まれた15歳の少年Shakie Kameraは両脚に銃弾を受けて死亡した。

封鎖隔離されていた期間、住民は兵士や警官に賄賂を渡して、West Pointを抜け出していた。食料や必需品の価格は2倍になり、スラムの関克状況はさらに悪化していた。

[NORIMITSU ONISHIAUG: "Quarantine for Ebola Lifted in Liberia Slum" (2014/08/24) on NY Times]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/30 12:42 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Back in early December, a little boy in southern Guinea caught a mysterious disease. He had a fever, was vomiting and had blood in his stool.

The boy died a few days later. Before he did, he passed the disease to his 3-year-old sister, his mother, his grandmother and a midwife. The latter was eventually hospitalized in Gueckedou, a nearby city of 200,000 people.

By March, the disease spread to four cities. And international health officials realized they had an Ebola outbreak on their hands.


[MICHAELEEN DOUCLEFF: "Could A 2-Year-Old Boy Be 'Patient Zero' For The Ebola Outbreak?" (2014/08/25) on NPR]
2014年3月23日にはWHOのリリースが出て、4月16日付で、ここまでの追跡結果が論文発表されている。しかし、この2歳の少年は発端患者ではなく、それより前の感染者は不明だという。現地から米国に戻ったばかりのCDCの感染症専門医のPierre Rollinによれば...
Rollin thinks these two kids were likely early cases of the outbreak but not the first cases. "Lots of people are talking about patient zero," Rollin says. "It's not patient zero. It's [that] the chain stopped there [at the boy] because we cannot find anybody else or nobody can remember anything."


To find the origin of the outbreak, a team with Doctors Without Borders went to Gueckedou and interviewed people whose relatives had died of what looked like Ebola. "So it was a virtual chain," Rollin says. None of the cases were confirmed in the lab. And by the time researchers reached people, many had a hard time remembering what had happened months ago.


[MICHAELEEN DOUCLEFF: "Could A 2-Year-Old Boy Be 'Patient Zero' For The Ebola Outbreak?" (2014/08/25) on NPR]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/28 08:47 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


コンゴ民主共和国(人口7743万人, GDP $400/人)(DR Congo, 旧ザイール)でのアウトブレイクは、WHOの発表によれば、最初に野生動物から感染した人が死亡したのは2014年8月11日で、接触者80名がフォローアップされている。
The index case was a pregnant woman from Ikanamongo Village who butchered a bush animal that had been killed and given to her by her husband. She became ill with symptoms of EVD and reported to a private clinic in Isaka Village. On 11 August 2014, she died of a then-unidentified haemorrhagic fever. Local customs and rituals associated with death meant that several health-care workers were exposed and presented with similar symptoms in the following week.

Between 28 July and 18 August 2014, a total of 24 suspected cases of haemorrhagic fever, including 13 deaths, have been identified. Human-to-human transmission has been established and includes the health-care personnel who were exposed to the deceased pregnant woman during surgery (one doctor and two nurses) in addition to the hygienist and a ward boy, all of whom developed symptoms and died. Other deaths have been recorded among the relatives who attended the index case, individuals who were in contact with the clinic staff, and those who handled the bodies of the deceased during funerals. The other 11 cases are currently being treated in isolation centres.

Samples have been sent to laboratories in Kinshasa and in Gabon for confirmation of EVD and to identify the strain. The index case and the 80 contacts have no history of travel to the EVD-affected countries in West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, or Sierra Leone) or history of contact with individuals from the affected areas. At this time, it is believed that the outbreak in DRC is unrelated to the ongoing outbreak in west Africa.




[WHO 2014/08/27]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/28 08:07 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



コンゴ民主共和国(人口7743万人, GDP $400/人)(DR Congo, 旧ザイール)で、エボラスーダン株に感染した患者及びスーダン株とザイール株の混合に感染した患者をが確認されtた。
Congo declared on Sunday that Ebola had been identified in its northern Équateur province after two patients tested positive for the virus, but the health minister, Felix Kabange Numbi, denied any link to the epidemic raging in west Africa.

Officials believe Ebola has killed 13 other people in the region, including five health workers. Kabange said 11 were ill and in isolation and 80 contacts were being traced, and the Djera area would be placed under quarantine. Djera is about 750 miles (1,200km) from Congo's capital, Kinshasa, and 375 miles from the provincial capital, Mbandaka.
Kabange said the Congolese epidemic "has nothing to do with the one in west Africa". One of the two cases that tested positive was for the Sudanese strain of the virus, he explained, while the other was a mixture of the Sudanese and the Zaire strain – the most dangerous. The virus in west Africa is the Zaire strain.
"The experience acquired during the six previous epidemics of Ebola will contribute to the containing of this illness," Kabange said. Médecins Sans Frontières said it was sending a crew to help handle patients in the Djera area.

コンゴ民主共和国は2014/08/24に、2名の患者のエボラウィルス検査が陽性だと判明し、Équateur県東部でエボラが特定されたと発表した。しかし、Felix Kabange Numbi保健相は、西アフリカでの流行との関係を否定した。


[David Smith: "Ebola outbreak: Congo becomes fifth country with confirmed cases" (2014/08/25) on The Guardian]

"We're going to provide essential medication in all medical institutions in the area of Gera but also free health treatment for the duration of the epidemic," Numbi said. A lab and quarantine station have been set up in the town, which is about 750 miles from the capital of Kinshasa.


[Faith Karimi; "Ebola cases appear in DR Congo; doctor given promising drug dies in Liberia" (2014/08/25) on CNN]
YearCasesDeathsCase Ebolavirus species

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/26 07:43 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする





2014/04/22鹿島火力発電所2号機60万kW-障害停止 (1970年運転開始)
2014/04/22東扇島火力発電所2号機100万kW-障害停止 (1993年運転開始)
2014/06/30富津火力発電所4号系列第2軸50.7万kW-点検開始 (2009新設)




posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/25 06:56 | Comment(4) | TrackBack(0) | Earthquake | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする




Most of the new cases are in Liberia, where the government was delivering donated rice to a slum where 50,000 people have been sealed off from the rest of the capital in an attempt to contain the outbreak.

New treatment centers in Liberia are being overwhelmed by patients that were not previously identified. One center with 20 beds opened its doors to 70 possibly infected people, likely coming from "shadow-zones" where people fearing authorities won't let doctors enter, the U.N health agency said.

"This phenomenon strongly suggests the existence of an invisible caseload of patients who are not being detected by the surveillance system," the agency said. This has "never before been seen in an Ebola outbreak."



[BASHIR ADIGUN and JONATHAN PAYE-LAYLEH: "Ebola Spreads in Nigeria; Liberia Has 1,000 Deaths" (2014/08/22) by The Associated Press]
ギニアではこれまで立ち入れなかった村への立ち入りが可能になることで、把握される感染者数が増大している。リベリアでは、それがまだ始まったばかりということかもしれない。(もちろん、首都MonriviaのWest Pointのような隔離封鎖されたスラムだと、その中で蔓延していくことも考えられる。)

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/23 14:35 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

メモ「ハーブ治療師がシエラレオネへのエボラ感染経路だというAFP報道」(UPDATE 2014/08/26)

She quickly saw first-hand one of the reasons Ebola had managed to spread so easily through three West African nations. Families often live on both sides of the shallow, narrow river that divides Guinea from Sierra Leone and from Liberia. People can easily shout across the muddy stream, and boatmen readily ferry travelers from one nation to the next. If people can cross freely, so can Ebola.


[Disease Detective: Kelsey (2014/08/09) on DC]

It has laid waste to the tribal chiefdoms of Sierra Leone, leaving hundreds dead, but the Ebola crisis began with just one healer's claims to special powers.

The outbreak need never have spread from Guinea, health officials revealed to AFP, except for a herbalist in the remote eastern border village of Sokoma.

"She was claiming to have powers to heal Ebola. Cases from Guinea were crossing into Sierra Leone for treatment," Mohamed Vandi, the top medical official in the hard-hit district of Kenema, told AFP. "She got infected and died. During her funeral, women around the other towns got infected."


ギニアのアウトブレイクは、東部国境沿いの僻地Sokomaの村のひとりのハーブ治療師を以外には広まらなかったと、医療当局者がAFPに語った。「彼女はエボラを治療できる力を持っていると主張していた。ギニアからの感染者たちが、治療を求めて国境を越えてシエラに来た。彼女は感染して、死亡した。彼女の葬儀の際に、周辺の町の女性たちが感染してしまった。」とKenemaの感染地域の医療当局者であるMohamed VandiはAFPに語った。
The herbalist's mourners fanned out across the rolling hills of the Kissi tribal chiefdoms, starting a chain reaction of infections, deaths, funerals and more infections. A worrying outbreak turned into a major epidemic when the virus finally hit Kenema city on June 17.


[Sierra Leone's 365 Ebola deaths traced back to one healer (2014/08/20) by AFP]
この報道は、シエラレオネのKenemaの保健行政に携わる人物がAFPに語ったというもの。他の報道機関の報道はAFPを引用する形となっている。容易に国境を越えられる、ギニア・シエラレオネ・リベリア国境地帯で、このハーブ治療師ひとりが感染経路であると、保健当局が追跡・確認できたかどうか何とも言えない。現時点ではBBCやNY TimesやReutersは報道しておらず、とりあえず続報待ち。

2014/08/26 UPDATE

「Kenemaの感染地域の医療当局者であるMohamed Vandi」をソースとするAFP報道以外に、「ハーブ治療師が感染経路である」とする報道があった。
In the eastern district of Kailahun in Sierra Leone, Mamie Lebbie, a traditional herbalist, claimed special powers to cure Ebola and attracted a multitude from Guinea, according to Ebun James-Dekam, general secretary of the Council of Churches in Sierra Leone.

Lebbie became the first woman to be infected in Sierra Leone and to die. At her funeral, mourners came from all corners to pay their respects, touching her body and those of their healthy colleagues, leading to a chain of infections.

シエラレオネ教会評議会議長Ebun James-Dekamによれば、シエラレオネのKailahun東部地区で、伝統的ハーブ量治療師Mamie Lebbieがエボラを治癒する特別な力があると主張して、ギニアから多数の人々を惹きつけた。Lebbieはシエラレオネ初の感染者女性となり、死亡した。彼女の葬儀で、各地からの会葬者たちは彼女に敬意を表し、彼女の体と、健康な同僚たちに触れたことで、感染の連鎖を引き起こした。

[Fredrick Nzwili: "As churches take measures to prevent Ebola, traditional healers ply herbs" (2014/08/24) on Religion News LLC]
ところが、「シエラレオネ最初の感染者Mamie Lebbie」がこれより10日ほど前に登場している。
The consequences of this outbreak will ripple for years, says Dr. James Sylvester Squire, Kailahun’s district medical officer. There has been no school or economic activity for months and for survivors like Mamie Lebbie - the country’s first laboratory-confirmed patient and survivor - her illness prevented her from farming and she is only now ploughing her fields, while others are already growing their rice; she worries about where she will get food or money in the coming months.

Kailahun地区の医療責任者Dr. James Sylvester Squireは、今回のアウトブレイクの影響は何年も残るだろうと述べた。シエラレオネ最初の感染が確認されたMamie Lebbieのような生存者は数か月にわたり学校や経済活動が止まる。彼女は病気のために農作業ができなかったので、他の人々がコメを栽培してるときに、農地を耕している。これからの数か月、どうやって食料やお金を手にいればいいのか彼女は途方に暮れている。

[In Sierra Leone, an exhausting struggle to contain Ebola (2014/08/13) on TheStar]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/23 11:10 | Comment(1) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



[Ohio's House Bill 597, introduced in the House of Representatives on July 28, 2014, would, if enacted, require the state's science standards to "prohibit political or religious interpretation of scientific facts in favor of another" − and a sponsor of the bill told a newspaper that it would allow local school districts to teach creationism alongside evolution and global warming denial alongside climate science.

Andy Thompson (R-District 95), who along with Matt Huffman (R-District 4) introduced HB 597, which is primarily aimed at repealing Common Core, told the Cleveland Plain Dealer (August 19, 2014) that the clause in question (in the newspaper's words) "prevents teachers and schools from only presenting one side of a political and scientific debate − global warming, for example, without presenting the other side."

2014年7月28日にオハイオ州下院に提案されたHB597は成立すれば、州理科教育基準に対して「別の側を選好して、科学的事実を政治的あるいは宗教的に解釈することを禁じる」 州法案の提案者は新聞に、この州法案により学区は進化論とともに創造論、気候科学とともに温暖化否定論を教えることができるようになると述べた。

共和党District95選出Andy Thompson州下院議員は、共和党District4選出Matt Huffman州下院議員はHB597を提案し、"Common Core"の撤回を狙っている。彼らはCleveland Plain dealer紙(2014/08/19)に対して、「地球温暖化などについて政治的及び科学的議論の一方側だけを提示し、もう一方を提示しないことを教師及び学校に禁じている」と述べた(言い間違えた)。


According to the Columbus Dispatch (August 19, 2014), HB 597 was assigned not to the House Education Committee but to the House Rules and Reference Committee, "which is run by top House GOP leaders and rarely hears bills." Huffman told the Dispatch that "he plans to hold six hearings over three weeks. The plan is to vote it out of committee to set up a full House vote soon after the November election."

Columbus Dispatch紙(2014/08/18)によれば、HB597は州下院教育委員会ではなく、「州下院共和党指導者たちが運営し、州法案について公聴会を開くことがあまりない」州下院議事運営委員会に送られた。Huffman州下院議員はDispatch紙に「3週間で6回の公聴会を開く計画だ。11月の議会選挙後にすぐくに、委員会をとばして、州下院本会議で議決することを狙っている」と述べた。

[Antiscience legislation in Ohio (2014/08/19) on NCSE]

Hearings on the bill are already taking place, according to the legislative website.


[Update on Ohio's antiscience bill (2014/08/02) on NCSE]



  • オハイオ州下院に季節外れの反科学州法案HB597登場 (2014/08/22)






posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/22 07:47 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | News | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Public awareness of the facts about Ebola is higher there than in the other affected countries. Innovative solutions are being found. For example, respected community leaders have been used to secure the cooperation of 26 villages that were highly resistant to outside help.

The opening of these villages has resulted in a surge of reported cases. These are cases that were previously concealed; their reporting should not be interpreted as a sudden upsurge in Guinea’s outbreak.

However, the outbreak is not under control. As recent experience shows, progress is fragile, with a real risk that the outbreak could experience another flare-up. A case in a previously unaffected area was reported last week, indicating continuing spread to new areas.




[Ebola situation in Nigeria and Guinea: encouraging signs (2014/08/18) on WHO]
The situation in Lagos, Nigeria, where the first imported case was detected in July, looks reassuring. At present, the city’s 12 confirmed cases are all part of a single chain of transmission. Those infected by the initial case include medical staff involved in his treatment, a patient in the same hospital, and a protocol officer in very close contact with the patient.
Intensive contact tracing, conducted by Nigerian health officials and staff from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has not, so far, identified any further confirmed cases outside the initial transmission chain.

[Ebola situation in Nigeria and Guinea: encouraging signs (2014/08/18) on WHO]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/21 07:57 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



人口1000万人のギニア(1人あたりGDP 1000ドル)の新規感染者数をそこそこに抑えこんでいる。人口600万人のシエラレオネ(1人あたりGDP724ドル)は新規感染者数が次第に増大しており、事態は悪化している。それでも指数関数的に増大しているわけではない。これに対して、人口420万人のリベリア(1人あたりGDP 372ドル)はアンコントロール状態で、感染者数が増大している。


これに対処すべく、2014年8月19日夜遅くに、リベリアのEllen Johnson-Sirleaf大統領は無期限の21:00-06:00の夜間外出禁止令と、すべてのエンターテイメントセンターの営業停止の命令を出した。さらに、首都のスラムであるWeset Point及びMargibi郡のDolo Townの隔離封鎖を命じた。
In a statement released Tuesday, President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf imposed a curfew from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. and ordered all “entertainment centers” closed indefinitely.

She also ordered West Point, a slum in Liberia’s capital city and home to about 50,000 people, to be quarantined, as well as Dolo Town in Margibi County.

[Christine Mai-Duc: "Liberia imposes curfew, quarantines slum as Ebola continues to spread" (2014/08/20) on LA Times]
このため、West Pointの5万人の住人たちは8月20日の朝起きて、隔離封鎖されていることに気づくこととなった。そして、軍・警察と衝突し、負傷者がでている。
Liberia’s halting efforts to contain the Ebola outbreak spreading across parts of West Africa quickly turned violent on Wednesday when angry young men hurled rocks and stormed barbed-wire barricades, trying to break out of a neighborhood here that had been cordoned off by the government.

Soldiers repelled the surging crowd with live rounds, driving hundreds of young men back into the neighborhood, a slum of tens of thousands in Monrovia known as West Point.

[Norimitsu Onish: "Clashes in Liberia After Ebola Quarantine Order" (2014/08/20) on TIME]


The situation in the Liberian capital, Monrovia, is “catastrophic,” according to Lindis Hurum, MSF emergency coordinator in Liberia. There are reports of at least 40 health workers being infected with Ebola over recent weeks. Most of the city’s hospitals are closed, and there are reports of dead bodies lying in streets and houses.

[Doctors without borders (2014/08/08)]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/21 07:12 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


"Ebola is real"


リベリアのジャーナリストWade Williamsは...
“In the first outbreak, people didn’t really understand what Ebola is,” says Wade Williams, an award-winning Liberian journalist. “The Ministry of Health came out and said they needed a million dollars to fight it, which made people say [the ministry] only wanted money.”


“People are beginning to know that the disease is here, and they’re getting paranoid,” Williams says.


[Ashoka Mukpo: "Why Don't West Africans Believe Ebola Is Real?" (2014/07/04) on VICE New]
また、僻地などにもよく出かけるリベリアの人権運動家Daniel Krakueは...
“People's thinking is that the whole situation is being made up by the government to get money from the international community,” says Daniel Krakue, a Liberian community rights advocate who frequently travels to remote parts of the country. “There is a whole lot of skepticism about the central government in rural areas, especially in terms of providing health services.”


[Ashoka Mukpo: "Why Don't West Africans Believe Ebola Is Real?" (2014/07/04) on VICE New]

もちろん、ギニア・リベリア・シエラレオネには呪などのウィッチクラフトや伝統的治療師という古い世界があり、それもまたエボラ感染拡大を招いている。やはり、大きいのは政府への不信。政府の広報が「Ebola is real」であることが、それを象徴している。
[Ahmed Jallanzo, EPA on [USA Today (2014/07/27)]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/20 08:33 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする




Mr Nyenswah said after the attack that 29 patients at the centre were being relocated and readmitted to an Ebola treatment centre located in the facility of the country's John F Kennedy Memorial Medical Center.

However, Jina Moore, a journalist for Buzzfeed who is in Monrovia, told the BBC that 10 people had been freed by their relatives on Friday night and 17 had escaped during the looting the next day.

Rebecca Wesseh, who witnessed the attack, told the AFP news agency: "They broke down the door and looted the place. The patients have all gone.

保健省副大臣Tolbert Nyenswahは、「襲撃後29名は、国内のJohn F Kennedy Memorial Medical Centerに設置されたエボラ治療センターに移され、再入院した」と述べた。

しかし、モンロヴィア滞在中のBuzzfeedのジャーナリストJina MooreはBBCに「10人が家族によって金曜夜に連れ出され、17名が翌日の襲撃で逃走した」と述べた。

襲撃を目撃したrebecca WessehはAFPに「彼らは扉を壊して押し入った。患者は全員逃走した」と述べた。

["Ebola crisis: Confusion as patients vanish in Liberia" (2014/08/17 updated) on BBC]
During the raid, as many as 30 suspected Ebola patients fled, but some have now been brought to another hospital, Assistant Health Minister Tolbert Nyenswah said late Sunday. It wasn't clear how many of those who fled had been tracked down or how authorities were identifying them.

None of those who fled had been confirmed with Ebola and the process of screening them is continuing, Mr. Nyenswah said.

[Ebola Virus: Liberian Authorities Start Re-Hospitalizing Patients Who Fled Clinic (2014/08/18) by The Associated Press]

Assistant Health Minister Tolbert Nyenswah said protesters had been unhappy that patients were being brought in from other parts of the capital.

Other reports suggested the protesters had believed Ebola was a hoax and wanted to force the quarantine centre to close

保健省副大臣Tolbert Nyenswahは「抵抗者たちは、患者が首都の他地区から、ここ(West Point)に運ばれてきたことが不満だった」と述べた。


["Ebola crisis: Confusion as patients vanish in Liberia" (2014/08/17 updated) on BBC]
“They said, ‘The president says you have Ebola, but you don’t have Ebola; you have malaria. Get up and go out!’” Jemimah Kargbo, who works at the clinic next door, told Buzzfeed.

診療所の隣で働いているJemimah KargboはBuzzfeedに「彼らは言っていた。『大統領は君らはエボラに感染していると言っている。しかし、君らはエボラに感染していない。マラリアだ。目を覚ませ! ここを出ろ!』」と語った。

[Terrence McCoy: "Why the escape of numerous Ebola patients in Liberia’s worst slum is so terrifying" (2014/08/18) on WashingtonPost]

West point, Monrovia

ところで、問題のWest pointはこのあたりにある:

Washington Postによれば、ウェストポイントはリベリア内戦のときに難民が流れ込んで、人口過剰のスラムとなった。
The slum of West Point, which health officials have considered quarantining, is populated by some of the poorest people in West Africa, most of whom have few resources or training to adequately treat or quarantine sick residents. Dominated by rusted shanties of corrugated iron, crime and drug abuse, analysts contend the overcrowded and densely populated peninsula could become another hot zone in the worst Ebola outbreak in history.

“It’s an informal community, a ‘slum,’ with no running water or toilets,” wrote Moore. “People can live seven or more to a single dwelling, and the density is dangerous: A positive Ebola patient disappearing into the maze of metal shacks can be a public health horror story.”

Residents agreed. “As I speak, the police station is deserted,” one resident named Moses Teah claimed in an interview with FrontPageAfrica. “There is no security now in West Point. I said to myself, ‘What a place.’ West Point people really shocked me yesterday.”

West Point’s population surged during Liberia’s civil war between 1989 and 2003, which killed a quarter-million people and displaced 1.3 million. Thousands fled fighting in the countryside and pushed into West Point, populating the community with refugees and child soldiers who grew into adulthood in the slum. It became one of the least hospitable places in the country.

“West point is the worst slum in Liberia,” commented Vice Media journalist Shane Smith in a documentary he did on Liberia. “Which makes it one of the worst slums in Africa, which makes it one of the worst slums in the world.”


Getty ImageのJohn Mooreは「そこは非公式コミュニティ、すなわちスラムであり、流水もトイレもない。人々は一軒の家に7人以上住んでいる。危険なほどの人口密度だ。エボラ陽性患者が、この迷路のような町にまぎれこんだら、公衆衛生上のホラーストーリになりうる」と述べた。

住人たちも同意する。FrontPageAfricaとのインタビューで、住人の一人Moses Teahは「言ったように、警察署には人がほとんどいない。ウェストポイントに安全はない。『なんて場所だ』と。ウェストポイントの人々には昨日、本当に衝撃を受けた」と述べた。


リベリアで撮ったドキュメンタリーで、Vice MediaのジャーナリストShane Smithは「ウェストポイントはリベリア最悪のスラムだ。アフリカ最悪のスラムのひとつであり、世界最悪のスラムのひとつだ」と述べている。

[Terrence McCoy: "Why the escape of numerous Ebola patients in Liberia’s worst slum is so terrifying" (2014/08/18) on WashingtonPost]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/19 06:54 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Local witnesses told Agence France Presse that there were armed men among the group that attacked the clinic. As many as 29 potentially Ebola-infected patients fled, the news agency reported.

目撃者がAgence France Presseに語ったところによれば、武装した集団が診療施設を襲った。エボラに感染している可能性のある患者が最大29名逃走したと地元報道機関が報道している。

"They broke down the doors and looted the place. The patients all fled," said Rebecca Wesseh, who witnessed the attack and whose report was confirmed by residents and the head of Health Workers Association of Liberian, George Williams.

「男たちはドアを壊して、略奪しました。患者はみんな逃げました」と襲撃を目撃したRebecca Wessehは述べた。これは周辺住民及び、Health Workers Association of Liberian代表George Williamsによって確認された。

The attack comes just one day after a report of a crowd of several hundred local residents, chanting, 'No Ebola in West Point,' drove away a burial team and their police escort that had come to collect the bodies of suspected Ebola victims in a slum in the capital, Reuters reports. The mob then forced open an Ebola isolation ward and took several patients out, many saying that the Ebola epidemic is a hoax.

この襲撃は「『エボラはWest Point(Monroviaの地区名)にはエボラは存在しない』と叫ぶ数百名の地元の群集が、首都のスラムでエボラ感染が疑われる死体を収集しに来た埋葬チーム及び護衛警官隊を追い出した」というReutersの報道があった翌日に起きた。群集はエボラ隔離施設に押入り、患者を連れ出した。多くがエボラ流行はホラだと言っていた。

[Report: Armed men attack Liberia Ebola clinic, freeing patients (2014/08/17) on CBS News]
また、BBCなどの報道によれば、警官隊は威嚇射撃を行ったが、群集を解散させられなかった。さらに、「Officials said blood-stained bedding looted from the centre posed a serious infection risk (当局者によれば、センターから略奪された血まみれのベッドは深刻な感染リスクである)」

A crowd of people angry about an Ebola outbreak that has killed 86 people across Guinea attacked a centre where people were being held in isolation, prompting an international aid group to evacuate its team, officials said Saturday.

The violence took place in the southern town of Macenta, where at least 14 people have died since the outbreak emerged last month. The mob of people who descended upon the clinic accused Doctors Without Borders health workers of bringing Ebola to Guinea, where there had never previously been any cases.



[Ebola clinic in Guinea evacuated after attack (2014/08/05) by The Associated Press]
This month, Doctors Without Borders classified 12 villages in Guinea as “red,” meaning they might harbor Ebola but were inaccessible for safety reasons.


[NY Times 2014/07/28 via CBS News]

There are 20 villages in southern Guinea where Doctors Without Borders, the main humanitarian agency fighting the crisis, can no longer go because of deep hostility toward healthcare workers.


[LA Times 2014/07/03 via CBS News]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/18 00:43 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



具体的な商品を捕捉したわけではないが、毎度のことなので、FDAはエボラの予防・治癒・治療できると称する詐欺商品について警告を出している。また、WHOも同様の警告を出して「All rumours of any other effective products or practices are false. Their use can be dangerous. (これ以外に有効な製品や治療法があるという噂はすべて誤りである。その使用には危険性がある)」と呼びかけている。

そんな中で、米国のサプリ業者"Natural Solutions Foundation"がナイジェリアに売り込みをかけているもよう。
Nigeria’s health minister was widely reported on Thursday to have endorsed an American nutritional supplement, one that the W.H.O. said was an example of the sort of “false rumors of effective products” it was trying to quell.

Earlier this week, a W.H.O. expert panel ruled it ethical to try some experimental drugs to fight this outbreak; some supplement makers have implied that ruling constituted permission for use of their products, though a top W.H.O. official emphasized that it did not.



While discussing the shipment to Liberia of an experimental drug the panel did endorse, ZMapp, Nigeria’s health minister, Onyebuchi Chukwu, said an unidentified Nigerian scientist living overseas had arranged for Nigeria to get a different experimental medicine, according to Nigerian news outlets. They identified it as NanoSilver, a supplement offered by the Natural Solutions Foundation, which said that it contains microscopic silver particles, although, as a food supplement, it is not tested by regulatory agencies. Silver kills some microbes on surfaces and in wounds, but it can be toxic and is not F.D.A.-approved for systemic use against viruses. ... NanoSilver is for sale on the foundation’s website alongside hemp oil, ear candles, chocolate and “mental clarity packs.”

専門家委員会が推奨した実験医薬品ZMappのリベリアへの出荷が論じられているときに、ナイジェリアの報道によれば、ナイジェリア保健相Onyebuchi Chukwuは、海外に住むナイジェリア人科学者(名前は明示されていない)が、別の実験医薬品をアレンジしたと述べた。それは、Natural Solutions Foundationが提案したサプリメントNanoSilver(ナノ銀)であると特定された。これは、微小な銀粒子が含まれていると言われていて、ダイエットサプリであり、規制当局によって検査されていない。銀は表面でいくつかの微生物を殺すが、それ自体は有害であり、ウィルスに対して系統的に利用することをFDAは認証していない。... NanoSilverは、麻実油や耳キャンドルやチョコと一緒にNatural Solutions Foundationのサイトで販売されている。

Recently, the foundation’s medical director, Dr. Rima E. Laibow, posted an “open letter to heads of Ebola-impacted states,” dated July 29, claiming that NanoSilver cured Ebola. She also claimed to have addressed 47 African health ministers at a 2007 conference and to be in touch with “West African governments and their advisers.”

Dr. Laibow could not be reached for comment. On Friday afternoon, after The New York Times emailed her a series of questions, two of her websites briefly became unavailable, then reappeared with headlines saying they were “under attack” and directing readers to other sites selling a different product, Silver Solution.

最近、Natural Solutions Foundationの医療部長Dr. Rima E. Laibowは2014年7月29日付の「エボラ感染国家への公開書簡」で、NanoSilverはエボラを治癒できると主張している。彼女は、2007年の会議でアフリカ47か国の保健相と会話し、西アフリカ諸国政府及び顧問と連絡が取れていると主張した。

NY TimesはDr. Rima E. Laibowのコメントをとれなかった。金曜午後(2014/08/15)、NY Timesが彼女に一連の質問メールを出した後で、彼女のウェブサイトのうち2つが一時的にアクセスできなくなり、復活後、「このサイトは攻撃を受けている」と書かれ、読者を別のサイト"Silver Solution"へ誘導する記載が出現した。

[DONALD G. McNEIL Jr.:"Agencies Issue Warnings Over Bogus Ebola Cures" (2014/08/16) on NY Times]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/17 22:33 | Comment(2) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

メモ 1980年代の米国とカナダの「全面核戦争 or 共産主義者の支配下」


一方、隣国カナダ(Ottawa Citizen - Mar 22, 1984)では...


特に1982年と1984年の間で、急激に弱気になっている。この時期には、1983年の米国ABCの"The day after"が放映されている。当時の印象的な映像であるBBCのThreadsはこの世論調査のあと、チェルノブイリ原発事故もまだ起きていない。これだけ変化させる冷戦状況の変化は何かあったかな?
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/17 14:21 | Comment(1) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


DMAA(1,3デメチルアミルアミン, メチルヘキサアミン, ゼラニウムエキス)は血圧上昇や息切れや心臓発作などを引き起こす可能性があり、米国での使用は非合法である。



[Regeneca Worldwide, A Division Of Vivaceuticals, Inc Voluntarily Recalls RegeneSlim Appetite Control Capsules Due To The Presence Of DMAA That May Pose Possible Health Risk (2014/08/07]

August 6, 2014 – Regeneca Worldwide a division of VivaCeuticals, Inc. Las Vegas, NV is conducting a voluntary nationwide recall of its RegeneSlim appetite control dietary supplement from lot # EX0616R15814 and lot #11414RE5516 because FDA analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA. DMAA is also known as 1,3-dimethylamylamine, methylhexanamine, or geranium extract. DMAA is commonly used as a stimulant, pre-workout, and weight loss ingredient in dietary supplement products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned that DMAA is potentially dangerous to health as it can narrow blood vessels and arteries, which can cause a rise in blood pressure or other cardiovascular problems such as shortness of breath, arrhythmias, tightening in the chest, and heart attack.
犬で利尿作用が見られ、豚で蠕動運動抑制効果が見られること[Venhuis and Kaste, 2012]から、減量効果っぽく見せかけることができるとサプリ業者が考えているのか、禁止されても使われ続けている。DMAAの摂取は避けるべきだが、ラベルにも記載がないので、注意のしようもない。
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/17 10:03 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Quackery | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Elsewhere, the outbreak is expected to continue for some time. WHO’s operational response plan extends over the next several months. Staff at the outbreak sites see evidence that the numbers of reported cases and deaths vastly underestimate the magnitude of the outbreak.

[WHO Ebola News 2014/08/14]
シエラレオネとリベリアの感染者数はほぼ同じだが、明らかにリベリアが急増に見える。このような状況を、国境なき医師団PresidentのJoanne Liuは「常に動き続ける最前線」と評している。
MSF President Joanne Liu, speaking after a 10-day trip to West Africa, compared the current Ebola outbreak to a "wartime" situation. "It's like a front line, it's moving, it's advancing, but we have no clue as to how it is going to go around."
MSF's Liu said the "emergency within the emergency" of the current outbreak was the heavy toll inflicted on health workers. ... What we face today ... is that people don't have access to basic health care. So more today are dying of malaria than are dying of Ebola," Liu said.

[STEPHANIE NEBEHAY AND UMARU FOFANA: "Ebola-hit states plead for more help, WHO rebuked for slow response" (2014/08/15) by Reuters]

  • ギニアの状況は春から変わらず、だらだらと新たな感染者を出している。
  • シェラレオネでは7月まで新規神瀬者数が増大していたが、7月中旬以降は、週間100名程度で推移。
  • リベリアは7月下旬から急激に悪化。



それはそれとして、感染拡大が止まらず、"Cordon sanitaire"(感染地域の検疫封鎖)をギニア・リベリア・シエラレオネは最初の感染地帯である国境地帯に対して行っている。
Plans for the new cordon were announced on Aug. 1 at an emergency meeting in Conakry, Guinea, of the Mano River Union, a regional association of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, the three countries hardest hit by Ebola, according to Agence France-Presse. The plan was to isolate a triangular area where the three countries meet, separated only by porous borders, and where 70 percent of the cases known at that time had been found.

[Dobald G. McNeil Jr.; "Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas" (2014/08/12) on NY Times]
Cordon sanitaireは、封鎖地域内には飢餓が起きて、さらなる犠牲者を出すこともありうる。それでも、感染を制圧できるだろうが。
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/16 08:37 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

メモ ウガンダ2000年のエボラアウトブレイク

Table 2: Summary of Ebola cases and Contacts in Uganda by District

Affected DistrictsCases Detected Laboratory confirmed casesContacts identifiedDeathsCFR

[Containing Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemic, The Ebola Experience in Uganda (October 2000 – January 2001) (2002/03) by WHO]
While in the Zairean outbreak it was impossible to follow contacts and movement of people in between villages had to be stopped by employing soldiers, in Uganda there was no quarantine instituted and emphasis was on isolation of cases and close monitoring of contacts. The role of the media was greatly recognized than in previous outbreaks and helped to minimize rumors.


[Containing Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemic, The Ebola Experience in Uganda (October 2000 – January 2001) (2002/03) by WHO]
Control interventions were very successful in containing the epidemic. The community structures used to contain the epidemic have continued to perform well after containment of the outbreak and have proved useful in the identification of other outbreaks as well.


[Containing Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemic, The Ebola Experience in Uganda (October 2000 – January 2001) (2002/03) by WHO]
Challenges to control efforts included in-adequate and poor quality of protective materials, especially at the beginning of the outbreak, nosocomial transmission of EHF. The quality of protective materials especially masks and goggles, in future outbreaks, needs to be taken into consideration. Other challenges to the outbreak control included deaths of health workers, numerous rumors and rejection of the convalescent cases by community members.


[Containing Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemic, The Ebola Experience in Uganda (October 2000 – January 2001) (2002/03) by WHO]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/16 01:32 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


信仰療法により子供を死なせた事件のその後(3) Greg & JaLea Swezey夫妻

2009年3月18日にワシントン州Wenatcheeで、Zachery Swezey(17歳)が虫垂破裂で死亡した。"Church of the First Born"の信者である両親Greg and JaLea Swezeyは、息子を病院に連れて行くことも、救急車を呼ぶこともしなかった。両親は第2級殺人あるいは第1級故殺の罪に問われた(2012/05/12)。
検察バージョンでは、Zacheryは死に至るまでの2日半にわたり、激しい腹痛・嘔吐・下痢を伴う重い病状だった。彼の病気はひどく、トイレにも手助けが必要で、彼は腸を制御できなかった。あまり症状が重いので、まず両親は彼をソファに寝かせた。そして次に、両親の部屋に運び込んだ。家族が来て、彼の世話をした。彼の熱は非常に高く、彼は服を脱ぎ、汗でシーツを濡らした。とOkanogan郡検事Karl Sloanは陪審員に語った。


[K.C. Mehaffey: "‘This was not a faith healing death,’ lawyer tells jury (2012/05/10) on Wenatchee World]

保安官報告によれば、両親Greg and Jalea Swezeyは、救急車を呼び、医師の診察を受けるかどうかを息子に選択させていた。「私たちは息子たちに強制していません。子供たちは選択権を持っています。息子Zacheryが医師のもとに連れて行くよう求めたことはありません」とGreg Swezeyは捜査官に述べた。

[Parents: Son had choice in faith-healing death (2009/08/29) by The Associated Press]



[K.C. Mehaffey: "‘This was not a faith healing death,’ lawyer tells jury (2012/05/10) on Wenatchee World]
A faith-healing Washington couple accused of being criminally responsible for their teenage son's death for failing to call a doctor have been acquitted of second-degree murder charges.

The Wenatchee World reports that the Okanogan County Superior Court jury also acquitted JaLea Swezey of first-degree manslaughter on Monday night but couldn't reach a verdict for Greg Swezey on that count.

After nine hours of deliberation, the jury could not reach a decision about either parent on a second-degree manslaughter count.

医師を呼ばずに10歳代の息子を死なせて第2級殺人の罪に問われた、ワシントン州在住の夫妻が無罪推定された。Wenatchee World紙によれば、Okanogan高等裁判所の陪審は月曜夜にJaLea Swezeyを無罪放免していたが、Greg Swezeyの評決に至らなかった。9時間の審議後、陪審は第2級故殺について、どちらの親も罪を問うことにも到達しなかった。

[Washington faith-healing parents acquitted of murder charge (2012/05/15) by The Associated Press]

なお、宗教による医療ネグレクトを免罪しているワシントン州法を改正する動きが起きている。ワシントン州議会2013-2014年度には、民主党Mark Mullet州上院議員が、信仰療法による医療ネグレクトを免罪している現行州法を改正する州法案SB6295を提案した。しかし、その後、SB6295は第1読会と公聴会のあと、第2読会のため議事運営委員会に送られたが、そこでX-FILE(それ以上審議しない)となった。
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/15 13:50 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Quackery | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

信仰療法により子供を死なせた事件のその後(2) Herbert & Catherine Schaible夫妻

当局によれば、先週、Herbert and Catherine Schaible夫妻は自分たちの息子Brandon Schaibleが下痢に苦しんで、夜通し泣いているのを聞いていて、呼吸困難に陥ったことに気づくと、夫妻は息子が息を引き取るまで、祈った。

夫妻は、2009年に2歳の息子Knet Schaibleを細菌性肺炎で死なせた後の2011年に、裁判官に宗教を医療に優先させた選択をしないと告げた。


「私は、あなたがたが、ご子息を亡くしたことを気の毒に思います。しかし、正直に言えば、無垢な小さな子供が、成りたかったものに成長することができなくなったことを、より気の毒に思っています。」とBenjamin Lerner裁判官は述べた。

夫妻は、Juniata ParkのAnnsbury近くのG Streetにある、信仰療法を信じる原理主義集会であるFirst Century Gospel Churchに所属している。夫妻は過失致死で有罪判決を受けて、残る子供たちに対する医療についての厳格な要件を含む保護観察10年を宣告されていた。
夫妻は先週、捜査官に対して、Brandonの苦しみ対する最善の治療法は祈りであると信じていたことを認める声明を手渡したと、Benjamin Lerner裁判官は述べた。「私があなたがたに、医師あるいは医療専門家を呼ばなかったのか理由を問うと、『私たちは神が私たちに治癒を神に祈ることを求めていると信じているから』と答えました。あなたがたはそれを一度しました。その結果は悲劇でした」とLerner裁判官は述べた。



[JASON NARK: "Judge rebukes Rhawnhurst couple over death of another child" (2013/04/24) on Phillly.Com]

夫妻が属している信仰療法団体First Century Gospel ChurchのNelson Clark(71)は、子供たちが死んだのは精神的不足(spiritual lack)があったからだと言った。
"They realize they must get back to God, to seek wisdom from him, to find where the spiritual lack is in their heart and life . . . so this won't happen again."
"He would confess his sins and repent to God and ask for a healing touch," Clark said.

「彼ら(Schaible夫妻)は神に立ち返り、神の知恵を求め、心と生活のどこに精神的不足(spiritual lack)があったのかを見出さなければならないことを認識しています。... そうすれば、このようなことが再び起きることはないでしょう。... 彼は自らの罪を神に告白し、ヒーリングタッチを求めるでしょう。」とClarkは言った。

Clark explained the church's tenets politely but fervently:

Satan tests through illness. God is a jealous God. Trust in medicine and doctors is idolatry. Only true faith in the divine power of God heals.

After Kent died, the Schaibles were ordered to call a doctor at the first sign of illness. But Herbert Schaible does not answer to a judge, Clark said:

"He knows he has to obey God rather than man."

Kentが死んだあと、Schaible夫妻は子供に症状の兆候が見られたら医師に連絡するよう命じられていた。しかし、Herbert Schaibleは裁判官に答えなかった。

"We have committed this child into God's care," Clark said he preached. "As we hold fast, in faith, God will explain."


[Mike Newall:"Pastor: 'Spiritual lack' killed two boys" (2013/04/29) on Philly.com]

The judge, prosecutor, and defense lawyers agreed: Herbert and Catherine Schaible were devoted, loving parents who were a danger to no one except their own children.

"They're good parents - except when their children are sick," said Assistant District Attorney Joanne Pescatore of the Rhawnhurst couple, each of whom was sentenced Wednesday to 31/2 to seven years in prison for doing nothing but pray while two of their young children were dying at home of pneumonia.

裁判官と検察と被告弁護士は、「Herbert & Catherine Schaible夫妻が献身的で愛情あふれる親たちであり、自分のことどもたち以外には危険ではない」と合意した。

「彼らは子供が病気のとき以外はよき親たちである」とRhawnhurst在住のSchaible夫妻の裁判を担当したJoanne Pescatore地方検事補は述べた。夫妻は2人の幼い子供が自宅で肺炎になったときに祈る以外に何もしなかったとして、水曜日(2014/02/19)に、15.5か月〜7年の懲役判決を受けた。
Lerner let Catherine Schaible remain free until March 12 so she and the children can celebrate a daughter's 11th birthday.

Catherine Schaible said she was the only child whose birthday she had been unable to celebrate since her arrest.

通常裁判所Benjamin Lerner裁判官は、娘の11歳の誕生日を祝えるように3月12日まで収監しないことにした。Catherine Schaibleは「逮捕後、この子だけ誕生日を祝えなかったのです」と述べた。

[Joseph A. Slobodzian: "Prison terms for Schaibles after second son's death" (2014/02/21) on philly.com:

そして、信仰療法のClark牧師は、子供が死んだのは夫妻の"Spiritual lack"のせいだと言って、責任など欠片も感ず、説教を続けている。
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