Most of the new cases are in Liberia, where the government was delivering donated rice to a slum where 50,000 people have been sealed off from the rest of the capital in an attempt to contain the outbreak.

New treatment centers in Liberia are being overwhelmed by patients that were not previously identified. One center with 20 beds opened its doors to 70 possibly infected people, likely coming from "shadow-zones" where people fearing authorities won't let doctors enter, the U.N health agency said.

"This phenomenon strongly suggests the existence of an invisible caseload of patients who are not being detected by the surveillance system," the agency said. This has "never before been seen in an Ebola outbreak."



[BASHIR ADIGUN and JONATHAN PAYE-LAYLEH: "Ebola Spreads in Nigeria; Liberia Has 1,000 Deaths" (2014/08/22) by The Associated Press]
ギニアではこれまで立ち入れなかった村への立ち入りが可能になることで、把握される感染者数が増大している。リベリアでは、それがまだ始まったばかりということかもしれない。(もちろん、首都MonriviaのWest Pointのような隔離封鎖されたスラムだと、その中で蔓延していくことも考えられる。)

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/23 14:35 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

メモ「ハーブ治療師がシエラレオネへのエボラ感染経路だというAFP報道」(UPDATE 2014/08/26)

She quickly saw first-hand one of the reasons Ebola had managed to spread so easily through three West African nations. Families often live on both sides of the shallow, narrow river that divides Guinea from Sierra Leone and from Liberia. People can easily shout across the muddy stream, and boatmen readily ferry travelers from one nation to the next. If people can cross freely, so can Ebola.


[Disease Detective: Kelsey (2014/08/09) on DC]

It has laid waste to the tribal chiefdoms of Sierra Leone, leaving hundreds dead, but the Ebola crisis began with just one healer's claims to special powers.

The outbreak need never have spread from Guinea, health officials revealed to AFP, except for a herbalist in the remote eastern border village of Sokoma.

"She was claiming to have powers to heal Ebola. Cases from Guinea were crossing into Sierra Leone for treatment," Mohamed Vandi, the top medical official in the hard-hit district of Kenema, told AFP. "She got infected and died. During her funeral, women around the other towns got infected."


ギニアのアウトブレイクは、東部国境沿いの僻地Sokomaの村のひとりのハーブ治療師を以外には広まらなかったと、医療当局者がAFPに語った。「彼女はエボラを治療できる力を持っていると主張していた。ギニアからの感染者たちが、治療を求めて国境を越えてシエラに来た。彼女は感染して、死亡した。彼女の葬儀の際に、周辺の町の女性たちが感染してしまった。」とKenemaの感染地域の医療当局者であるMohamed VandiはAFPに語った。
The herbalist's mourners fanned out across the rolling hills of the Kissi tribal chiefdoms, starting a chain reaction of infections, deaths, funerals and more infections. A worrying outbreak turned into a major epidemic when the virus finally hit Kenema city on June 17.


[Sierra Leone's 365 Ebola deaths traced back to one healer (2014/08/20) by AFP]
この報道は、シエラレオネのKenemaの保健行政に携わる人物がAFPに語ったというもの。他の報道機関の報道はAFPを引用する形となっている。容易に国境を越えられる、ギニア・シエラレオネ・リベリア国境地帯で、このハーブ治療師ひとりが感染経路であると、保健当局が追跡・確認できたかどうか何とも言えない。現時点ではBBCやNY TimesやReutersは報道しておらず、とりあえず続報待ち。

2014/08/26 UPDATE

「Kenemaの感染地域の医療当局者であるMohamed Vandi」をソースとするAFP報道以外に、「ハーブ治療師が感染経路である」とする報道があった。
In the eastern district of Kailahun in Sierra Leone, Mamie Lebbie, a traditional herbalist, claimed special powers to cure Ebola and attracted a multitude from Guinea, according to Ebun James-Dekam, general secretary of the Council of Churches in Sierra Leone.

Lebbie became the first woman to be infected in Sierra Leone and to die. At her funeral, mourners came from all corners to pay their respects, touching her body and those of their healthy colleagues, leading to a chain of infections.

シエラレオネ教会評議会議長Ebun James-Dekamによれば、シエラレオネのKailahun東部地区で、伝統的ハーブ量治療師Mamie Lebbieがエボラを治癒する特別な力があると主張して、ギニアから多数の人々を惹きつけた。Lebbieはシエラレオネ初の感染者女性となり、死亡した。彼女の葬儀で、各地からの会葬者たちは彼女に敬意を表し、彼女の体と、健康な同僚たちに触れたことで、感染の連鎖を引き起こした。

[Fredrick Nzwili: "As churches take measures to prevent Ebola, traditional healers ply herbs" (2014/08/24) on Religion News LLC]
ところが、「シエラレオネ最初の感染者Mamie Lebbie」がこれより10日ほど前に登場している。
The consequences of this outbreak will ripple for years, says Dr. James Sylvester Squire, Kailahun’s district medical officer. There has been no school or economic activity for months and for survivors like Mamie Lebbie - the country’s first laboratory-confirmed patient and survivor - her illness prevented her from farming and she is only now ploughing her fields, while others are already growing their rice; she worries about where she will get food or money in the coming months.

Kailahun地区の医療責任者Dr. James Sylvester Squireは、今回のアウトブレイクの影響は何年も残るだろうと述べた。シエラレオネ最初の感染が確認されたMamie Lebbieのような生存者は数か月にわたり学校や経済活動が止まる。彼女は病気のために農作業ができなかったので、他の人々がコメを栽培してるときに、農地を耕している。これからの数か月、どうやって食料やお金を手にいればいいのか彼女は途方に暮れている。

[In Sierra Leone, an exhausting struggle to contain Ebola (2014/08/13) on TheStar]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/23 11:10 | Comment(1) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



[Ohio's House Bill 597, introduced in the House of Representatives on July 28, 2014, would, if enacted, require the state's science standards to "prohibit political or religious interpretation of scientific facts in favor of another" − and a sponsor of the bill told a newspaper that it would allow local school districts to teach creationism alongside evolution and global warming denial alongside climate science.

Andy Thompson (R-District 95), who along with Matt Huffman (R-District 4) introduced HB 597, which is primarily aimed at repealing Common Core, told the Cleveland Plain Dealer (August 19, 2014) that the clause in question (in the newspaper's words) "prevents teachers and schools from only presenting one side of a political and scientific debate − global warming, for example, without presenting the other side."

2014年7月28日にオハイオ州下院に提案されたHB597は成立すれば、州理科教育基準に対して「別の側を選好して、科学的事実を政治的あるいは宗教的に解釈することを禁じる」 州法案の提案者は新聞に、この州法案により学区は進化論とともに創造論、気候科学とともに温暖化否定論を教えることができるようになると述べた。

共和党District95選出Andy Thompson州下院議員は、共和党District4選出Matt Huffman州下院議員はHB597を提案し、"Common Core"の撤回を狙っている。彼らはCleveland Plain dealer紙(2014/08/19)に対して、「地球温暖化などについて政治的及び科学的議論の一方側だけを提示し、もう一方を提示しないことを教師及び学校に禁じている」と述べた(言い間違えた)。


According to the Columbus Dispatch (August 19, 2014), HB 597 was assigned not to the House Education Committee but to the House Rules and Reference Committee, "which is run by top House GOP leaders and rarely hears bills." Huffman told the Dispatch that "he plans to hold six hearings over three weeks. The plan is to vote it out of committee to set up a full House vote soon after the November election."

Columbus Dispatch紙(2014/08/18)によれば、HB597は州下院教育委員会ではなく、「州下院共和党指導者たちが運営し、州法案について公聴会を開くことがあまりない」州下院議事運営委員会に送られた。Huffman州下院議員はDispatch紙に「3週間で6回の公聴会を開く計画だ。11月の議会選挙後にすぐくに、委員会をとばして、州下院本会議で議決することを狙っている」と述べた。

[Antiscience legislation in Ohio (2014/08/19) on NCSE]

Hearings on the bill are already taking place, according to the legislative website.


[Update on Ohio's antiscience bill (2014/08/02) on NCSE]



  • オハイオ州下院に季節外れの反科学州法案HB597登場 (2014/08/22)






posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/22 07:47 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | News | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Public awareness of the facts about Ebola is higher there than in the other affected countries. Innovative solutions are being found. For example, respected community leaders have been used to secure the cooperation of 26 villages that were highly resistant to outside help.

The opening of these villages has resulted in a surge of reported cases. These are cases that were previously concealed; their reporting should not be interpreted as a sudden upsurge in Guinea’s outbreak.

However, the outbreak is not under control. As recent experience shows, progress is fragile, with a real risk that the outbreak could experience another flare-up. A case in a previously unaffected area was reported last week, indicating continuing spread to new areas.




[Ebola situation in Nigeria and Guinea: encouraging signs (2014/08/18) on WHO]
The situation in Lagos, Nigeria, where the first imported case was detected in July, looks reassuring. At present, the city’s 12 confirmed cases are all part of a single chain of transmission. Those infected by the initial case include medical staff involved in his treatment, a patient in the same hospital, and a protocol officer in very close contact with the patient.
Intensive contact tracing, conducted by Nigerian health officials and staff from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has not, so far, identified any further confirmed cases outside the initial transmission chain.

[Ebola situation in Nigeria and Guinea: encouraging signs (2014/08/18) on WHO]

posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/21 07:57 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



人口1000万人のギニア(1人あたりGDP 1000ドル)の新規感染者数をそこそこに抑えこんでいる。人口600万人のシエラレオネ(1人あたりGDP724ドル)は新規感染者数が次第に増大しており、事態は悪化している。それでも指数関数的に増大しているわけではない。これに対して、人口420万人のリベリア(1人あたりGDP 372ドル)はアンコントロール状態で、感染者数が増大している。


これに対処すべく、2014年8月19日夜遅くに、リベリアのEllen Johnson-Sirleaf大統領は無期限の21:00-06:00の夜間外出禁止令と、すべてのエンターテイメントセンターの営業停止の命令を出した。さらに、首都のスラムであるWeset Point及びMargibi郡のDolo Townの隔離封鎖を命じた。
In a statement released Tuesday, President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf imposed a curfew from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. and ordered all “entertainment centers” closed indefinitely.

She also ordered West Point, a slum in Liberia’s capital city and home to about 50,000 people, to be quarantined, as well as Dolo Town in Margibi County.

[Christine Mai-Duc: "Liberia imposes curfew, quarantines slum as Ebola continues to spread" (2014/08/20) on LA Times]
このため、West Pointの5万人の住人たちは8月20日の朝起きて、隔離封鎖されていることに気づくこととなった。そして、軍・警察と衝突し、負傷者がでている。
Liberia’s halting efforts to contain the Ebola outbreak spreading across parts of West Africa quickly turned violent on Wednesday when angry young men hurled rocks and stormed barbed-wire barricades, trying to break out of a neighborhood here that had been cordoned off by the government.

Soldiers repelled the surging crowd with live rounds, driving hundreds of young men back into the neighborhood, a slum of tens of thousands in Monrovia known as West Point.

[Norimitsu Onish: "Clashes in Liberia After Ebola Quarantine Order" (2014/08/20) on TIME]


The situation in the Liberian capital, Monrovia, is “catastrophic,” according to Lindis Hurum, MSF emergency coordinator in Liberia. There are reports of at least 40 health workers being infected with Ebola over recent weeks. Most of the city’s hospitals are closed, and there are reports of dead bodies lying in streets and houses.

[Doctors without borders (2014/08/08)]
posted by Kumicit at 2014/08/21 07:12 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Disease | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする