130年の歴史を誇る都市伝説「ブアメードの血」Update 2016/03

  • 初出は変わらず、1886年の英国Lancetの記事(執筆者不詳、実験の場所・時代不詳)
  • フランス語圏への伝播は、Lancet記事の引用で、1886年。このとき「英国・前世紀」が加えられた。これがFlammarion(1900)英語版に引用されたと思われる。
  • 誌名不詳・年代不詳のインドの医療系定期刊行物に記載されていたとするインド系列の存在。これが1936年に始まり、除細動器開発者であるLownの1996年の著作で引用されて広まっている。
  • 「ブアメード」という名は、笠巻勝利(1998)以前に見当たらない。


[The Lancet Vol 127 No 3277 Jun 19, 1886, p.1175 "CAN IMAGINATION KILL?"]

The writer of the article in our contemporary, we think wrongly, brings forward two remarkable instances of what may be regarded as practical jokes with melancholy terminations. In the case of the convict delivered up to the scientist for the purpose of a psychological experiment (the man was strapped to a table and blindfolded, ostensibly to he bled to death; a syphon containing water was placed near his head, and the fluid was allowed to trickle audibly into a vessel below it, at the same time that a trifling , scratch with a needle was inflicted on the culprit'a neck ; it is said that death occurred at the end of six minutes), fear must have played no inconsiderable share in the fatal result, and we do not knew whether all the vital organs were in sound condition, though they were presumably so.

[Columbus Medical Journal: A Magazine of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 7, p.214 (1889)]


[Items of Interest, Volume 8, p.361 (1886)]


[Chambers's Journal, Volume 64 By William Chambers, Robert Chambers (1887)]


既に、この時点でナポレオン3世と「フランスの医師」が付け加えられている。また、"some years ago"とは言うものの、実際にはナポレオン3世死後17年後の記事であり、「直近の出来事」ではないという記述をしている。直近だと納得感がないのかもしれない。


The Lancet rapproche de ce cas tout récent deux exemples de cruelle mystification, ou la mort survint également sous le coup d'une profonde terreur.

The Lancetは、深い恐怖の影響のもとでの、残酷な神秘あるいは死亡の、最新の例を2つ挙げている。

Le premier est le cas classique d'un condamné anglais du siècle dernier, livré à des médecins pour servir à une expérience psychologique, dont la mort fut le résultat. Ce malheureux avait été solidement attaché à une table avec de fortes courroies; on lui avait bandé les yeux, puis on lui avait annoncé qu'il allait être saigné au cou et qu'on laisserait couler son sang jusqu'à épuisement complet; après quoi, une piqûre insignifiante fut pratiquée à son épiderme avec la pointe d'une aiguille, et un siphon déposé près de sa tête, de manière à faire couler sur son cou un filet d'eau qui tombait sans interruption avec un bruit léger, dans un bassin placé à terre. Au bout de six minutes, le supplicié, convaincu qu'il avait dû perdre au moins sept à huit pintes de sang, mourut de peur.


[Annales médico psychologiques (1886)]

このフランス語の記事が、Camille FlammarionのL'inconnu - The unknown (1900)(英語版)のもととなっているようである。

An idea, an impression, a mental commotion, while entirely internal, can produce in another direction physiological effects more or less intense, and is even capable of causing death. Examples are not wanting of persons dying suddenly in consequence of emotion. The power which imagination is capable of exercising over life itself has long been established. The experiment performed in the last century in England on a man condemned to death, who was made the subject of a study of this kind by medical men, is well known. The subject of the experiment was fastened securely to a table with strong straps, his eyes were bandaged, and he was then told that he was to be bled from the neck until every drop of his blood had been drained. After this an insignificant puncture was made in his skin with the point of a needle, and a siphon arranged near his head in such a manner as to allow a continuous stream of water to flow over his neck and fall with a slight sound into a basin placed on the floor. At the end of six minutes the condemned man, believing that he had lost at least seven or eight quarts of blood, died of terror.

Une idée, tout intérieure, une impression, une commotion mentale peut, à l’inverse, produire des effets physiologiques plus ou moins intenses, et même amener la mort. Il ne manque pas d’exemples de personnes mortes subitement à la suite d’une émotion. La preuve est donnée depuis longtemps des effets de la puissance de l’imagination sur la vie elle-même. Personne n’a oublié l’expérience faite à Copenhague en 1750 sur un condamné, livré à des médecins pour une étude de ce genre, et qui fut observé jusqu’à la mort inclusivement. Ce malheureux avait été solidement attaché à une table avec de fortes courroies ; on lui avait bandé les yeux ; puis on lui avait annoncé qu’il allait être saigné au cou et qu’on laisserait couler son sang jusqu’à l’épuisement complet ; après quoi une piqûre insignifiante fut pratiquée à son épiderme avec la pointe d’une aiguille, et un siphon déposé près de sa tête, de manière à faire couler sur son cou un filet d’eau qui tombait sans interruption avec un bruit léger, dans un bassin placé à terre. Le supplicié convaincu qu’il avait dû perdre 7 à 8 litres de sang, mourut de peur.


[Camille Flammarion: "Línconnu" quoted in Blog União Fraterna Bezerra de Menezes]


1922年のThe Toledo News-Beeの記事では、英国の医科大学で起きたことになっていた。


[The Toledo News-Bee - Oct 25, 1922 "All in the mind" by Toledoan]
1926年に「数年前にフランスの医師」が行った実験として、現Tampa Bay Times(当時St. Petersburg Times)が紹介している。


[St. Petersburg Times - Feb 21, 1926 (Currently Tampa Bay Times)]
[Arthur Brisbane: "THIS WEEK" Appleton review Vol. 1, no. 11 (March 28, 1930), also on Cass City Chronicle (March 27, 1930), and Rochester Evening Journal - Mar 18, 1930]

What people think decides what they are. Prosperity is to a considerable extent a matter of psychology.

Once a man was fastened in a chair, his feet put in warm water, and as a practical joke he was shown a razor of which the blunt end was drawn across the soles of his bare feet. He was told, "You will bleed to death painlessly in this warm water." He didn't lose a drop of blood, but he died.

Don't let prosperity die in that fashion, killed by imagination.




Flammarion系列か分岐したのかどうかわからないが、Archives of Neurology and Psychiatryという学術誌に、同様のネタを「インドの医療系雑誌に掲載されていたネタ」して記載している記事があった。
Emotions as the Cause of Rapid and Sudden Death. Dr. N. S. Yawger.

Years ago, a medical periodical in India published an article entitled 'Killed by the Imagination'. In substance it stated: A celebrated physician, author of a work on the effects of the imagination, was permitted to try an astonishing experiment on a criminal who had been condemned to death. The prisoner, an assassin of distinguished rank, was advised that, in order that his family might be spared the further disgrace of a public hanging, permission had been obtained to bleed him to death within the prison walls. After being told 'Your dissolution will be gradual and free from pain', he willingly acquiesced to the plan. Full preparations having been made, he was blindfolded, led to a room and strapped onto a table near each corner of which was a vessel containing water, so contrived that it could drip gently into basins. The skin overlying the blood vessels of the four extremeties was then scratched, and the contents of the vessels were released. Hearing the flow of water, the prisoner believed that his blood was escaping; by degrees he became weaker and weaker, which, seemingly, was confirmed by the conversation of the physicians carried on in lower and lower tones. Finally, the silence was absolute except for the sound of the dripping water, and that too died out gradually. 'Although possessed of a strong constitution (the prisoner) fainted and died, without the loss of a drop of blood.'

数年前、インドの医療定期刊行物に「想像力による殺人」と題する記事が掲載された。その記事には次のように書かれていた: 想像力の効果についての研究の執筆者である著名な医師が、死刑判決を受けた犯罪者を対象とした驚くべき実験を許可された。高ランクの暗殺者である囚人は、彼の公開処刑によって彼の家族が屈辱を受けることを避けるために、刑務所の壁の中で出血死をする許可が与えられたと告げられた。「死は徐々にやってきて、痛みは感じないだろう」と告げられると、彼は喜んで計画に従った。完全な準備がなされ、彼は目隠しをされ、部屋に連れてこられ、台の上に固定された。台の四隅には水の入った容器があり、ゆっくりと水が床へと滴るようになっていた。四肢の先端の血管を覆う皮膚が傷つけられ、容器の水がリリースされた。水の流れる音を聞いて、囚人は自分の血が流れ出ていると信じた。医師たちの会話の声が次第に低くなるのを聞いて、彼は自分が弱っていくのを確認できた。そして最後には、水の滴る音以外は静寂となり、彼は徐々に死亡した。「囚人は健康体だったが、一滴の血液も失うことなく、気絶して死亡した。」

[PHILADELPHIA NEUROLOGICAL SOCIETY: Stated Meeting, Nov. 22, 1935. F. C. Grant, M.D., President, in the Chair, Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1936;36(4):869-890. (1999K) (via Gary Bruno Schmid & Bernardo N. De Luca)]

雑誌掲載の年代すら記載されず、場所も時代もわからない記事だが、これを信じたのが、1921年生まれで、除細動器の開発者であり、1985年にノーベル平和賞を受賞した核戦争防止国際医師会議の提唱者である、Bernard Lownである。彼は、1996年に出版した「The Lost Art of Healing」の中で...
My interest in the psychological was constantly rearoused by clinical observation and by studying the encyclopedic literature. A report in an Indian medical periodical, "Killed by the Imagination"* left and indelible impression early in my carrier.

臨床観察や百科事典的記述の研究により、私の心理学への興味が、くりかえし、かきたてられる。インドの医療系定期刊行物に掲載された「Killed by Imagination"は、消せない印象を私のキャリアに残した。

A Hindu physician was authorized by prison authorities to conduct an astonishing experiment on a criminal condemned to death by hanging. The doctor pesuaded the prisoner to permit himself to be exsanguinated -- bled to death -- assuring him that death, though gradual, would be painless. The convict, on agreeing, was strapped to a bed and blindfolded. Vessels filled with water were hung at each of the four bedposts and set up to drip into basins on the floor. The skin on his four exremities was scratched, and the water began to drip into the containers, initially fast, then progressively slowing. By degrees the prisoner grew weaker, a condition reinforced by the physician's intoning a lower and lower voice. Finally the silence was absolute as the dripping of water ceased. Although the prisoner was healthy young man, at the completion of the experiment, when the water flow stopped, he appeared to have fainted. On examination, however, he was found to be dead despite not having lost not a drop of blood.


Over the centuries, a wealth of similar anecdotes has been amassed. The medical profession has long known that nervous activity influences every part of the body. Nearly 350 years ago, William Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, stated: "Every affection of the mind that is attended with either pain or pleasure, hope or fear is the cause of an agitation whose influence extends to the heart."

幾世紀にもわたり、同様の逸話が多く積み上げられてきた。医療従事者は長きにわたり、神経活動が身体のあらゆる場所に影響することを知っていた。350年ほど前、血液循環の発見者であるWilliam Harveyは「心のあらゆる影響は、苦しみであれ楽しみであり、希望であれ恐怖であれ、興奮を引きこ起こし、その影響は心臓にも及ぶ」と書いている。

*N.S. Yagwer, "Emotions as a Cause of Rapid and Sudden Death", Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 36 (1936), 875.

[Bernard Lown:"The Lost Art of Healing"(1996/09/30), pp.31-32]

In 1936, in India, recounts Nobel Laureate Bernard Lown in "The Lost Art of Healing," an astonishing experiment was conducted on a prisoner condemned to die by hanging. He was given the choice instead of being "exsanguinated," or having his blood let out, because this would be gradual and relatively painless. The victim agreed, was strapped to the bed and blindfolded.

Unbeknownst to him, water containers were attached to the four bedposts and drip buckets set up below. Then after light scratches were made on his four extremities, the fake drip brigade began: First rapidly, then slowly, always loudly. "As the dripping of water stopped, the healthy young man's heart stopped also. He was dead, having lost not a drop of blood."

ノーベル賞受賞者Bernard Lownは自著"The Lost Art of Healing"で、「1936年にインドで、絞首刑判決を受けた受刑者に対して、驚くべき実験が行われた」ことを語っている。受刑者は、「放血」すなわち、出血による死を選択する権利を与えられた。それは比較的、緩慢かつ痛みの小さい死に方であったからだ。受刑者は同意し、ベッドに固定されて、目隠しされた。


[Bill Sones & Rich Sones Ph.D.: "Strange but true: Loud drips can scare you to death" (2004/01/05)]

Another dramatic example of the power of expectancy involves an inmate who was in prison and sentenced to be executed, He was offered a chance to participate in a research project and told that if he lived through it his sentence would be reduce to life in prison. The prisoner consented and the experiment was conducted. They wanted to find out how much blood a person could lose and still live.

The researchers placed the prisoner in a darkened operating room and made a very slight incision. Very little blood was lost through the incision. But they arranged for sound effects to simulate the dropping of blood which the prisoner believed was his own blood. The next morning, the researchers came into the operating room and found the prisoner had died, He died of his belief that he was bleeding to death. By the way, this study was conducted in the early 20th century and certainly wouldn't be sanctioned under our new AMA guidelines.



[Berge Minasian: "The Power of Choice: Living the Life You Always Wanted and Absolutely Deserve" (2010)]


フランスで「英国」の出来事にされた記事を基にしたと思われる、FlammarionのThe Unkown英語版が、日本で翻訳出版されたのが1924年。
[フラマリオン 著 ; 大沼十太郎 訳: "未知の世界へ" 東京 : アルス, 大正13 (1924), P.277]
[谷口雅春: "生命の實相 : 生長の家聖典" 住吉村 (兵庫県) : 生長の家出版部, 昭和7 (1932), P.233]
或る時死刑囚を實験に供しました。先づ其の男に目隠しをしました身體を厳重に椅子に縛りつけ、さて『これから汝の頸部から一滴ずつ血液を滴らして徐々に汝の全身の血を搾り取つて了ふぞ』と宣告しました。斯く云う宣告をして 恐怖の暗示を與えた後、實験者は囚人の頸部に針の先端をもつて微細な傷をつけ、恰も局所から血が滴つてゐるかのやうに、彼の頸部に水を傳はらせて、床の上に一滴づつ音を立てて落ちるような仕掛をしておいたのであります。六分間程経過して、『サァおまえは全身の血液の三分の二を失つて了つた』と暗示しますと死刑囚はそれを信じて恐怖の余り絶命して了つたのであります。(フラマリオン:"未知の世界")
[谷口雅春: "生命の實相 : 頭注版. 第2巻 (實相篇 下)" 東京 : 日本教文社, 1962.6, P.20]
ある時 死刑囚を実験につかいました。まず其の男に目隠しをしまして、身体を厳重に椅子に縛りつけ、さて『これからなんじの頸部から一滴ずつ血液をしたたらしてじょじょになんじの全身の血を搾り取ってしまうぞ』と宣告しました。こういう宣告をして 恐怖の暗示を与えた後、実験者は囚人の頸部に針の先をもって微細な傷をつけ、あたかも局所から血がしたたっているかのように、彼の頸部に水を伝わらせて、床の上に一滴ずつ音を立てて落ちるようなしかけをしておいたのであります。六分間ほど経過して、『サァおまえは全身の血液の三分の二を失ってしまった』と暗示しますと死刑囚はそれを信じて恐怖のあまり絶命してしまったのであります。(フラマリオン:"未知の世界")

[笠巻勝利: "眼からウロコが落ちる本"(1999/09) (PHP文庫), pp.46-47]
[長谷川淳史: "腰痛は<怒り>である", 2000]
[広告屋のネタ帳 1998. 07.25 いつも通り第9号]



Lancet (1886)---台(table)- (6分後)
Items of Interest (1886)---台(table)- (6分後)
Chambers's Journal (1887)------
Chambers's Journal, Volume 64 By William Chambers, Robert Chambers (1887)-フランス(の医師)数年前(ナポレオン3世の許可)台(table)- (6分後)
Columbus Medical Journal (1889)------
Annales médico psychologiques (1886)-英国前世紀7-8パイント
Rochas 1887-英国前世紀7-8パイント
Flammarion (1900)[F]-コペンハーゲン1750台(table)7-8リットル
Flammarion (1900)[E]-英国前世紀台(table)7-8クォート
フラマリオン 著 ; 大沼十太郎 訳(1924)-英國先世紀テーブル六、七升
Toledo News Bee (1922)-英国の医科大学-心臓近くの皮膚手術台-
St. Petersburg Times (1926)-フランス(の医師)数年前動脈台(table)- (5分)
Arthur Brisbane (1930)---裸足の裏全体椅子-
谷口雅春 (1932)--或る時頸部椅子全身の血液の三分の二
PHILADELPHIA NEUROLOGICAL SOCIETY (1935)-インド(の医学誌)-四肢の先端台(table)-
谷口雅春 (1962)--あるとき頸椎椅子全身の血液の三分の二
広告屋のネタ帳 (1998)-アメリカ----
笠巻勝利 (1999)ブアメードオランダ1883足の親指ベッド全身の1/3

posted by Kumicit at 2016/03/29 05:40 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



The poor often behave in less capable ways, which can further perpetuate poverty. We hypothesize that poverty directly impedes cognitive function and present two studies that test this hypothesis. First, we experimentally induced thoughts about finances and found that this reduces cognitive performance among poor but not in well-off participants. Second, we examined the cognitive function of farmers over the planting cycle. We found that the same farmer shows diminished cognitive performance before harvest, when poor, as compared with after harvest, when rich. This cannot be explained by differences in time available, nutrition, or work effort. Nor can it be explained with stress: Although farmers do show more stress before harvest, that does not account for diminished cognitive performance. Instead, it appears that poverty itself reduces cognitive capacity. We suggest that this is because poverty-related concerns consume mental resources, leaving less for other tasks. These data provide a previously unexamined perspective and help explain a spectrum of behaviors among the poor. We discuss some implications for poverty policy.

[Anandi Mani, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir, Jiaying Zhao:"Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function", Science 30 Aug 2013: Vol. 341, Issue 6149, pp. 976-980]

In a series of experiments, the researchers found that pressing financial concerns had an immediate impact on the ability of low-income individuals to perform on common cognitive and logic tests. On average, a person preoccupied with money problems exhibited a drop in cognitive function similar to a 13-point dip in IQ, or the loss of an entire night's sleep.


[Poor concentration: Poverty reduces brainpower needed for navigating other areas of life (2013/08/29) on Princeton]
Poverty limits opportunities for parents to teach their children.

Like any other kind of thinking, self-control can be taught. Children do better at self-control (and in school) when their parents teach them to solve problems independently and to participate in decisions. But that kind of involved parenting takes time, and financially poor parents are often “time poor” too. Family factors, such as nurturance and stimulation, that are limited by time poverty are directly linked to mental development. Furthermore, it makes sense that people living in poor, dangerous neighborhoods don’t give their children as much autonomy as people living in less dangerous neighborhoods. As a result, poor working parents are prevented from−not incapable−of teaching self-control to their children.


[Elliot T Berkman Ph.D.:"5 Reasons Why Poverty Reduces Self-Control" (2015/09/05) on PsychologyToday]
Poverty restricts people’s vision of what is possible.

The Little Engine Who Could thought she could climb up the hill before she actually did. She had what psychologists call “self-efficacy,” the belief in her own abilities. An important source of self-efficacy is watching similar others accomplish goals. Poverty doesn’t occur in isolation, so children growing up in poor neighborhoods are short on models of people who escape poverty and long on models of people who do not. A child born in the bottom fifth of the income distribution has less than a one-in-ten chance of moving to the top fifth, and even the brightest poor children are still less likely to complete college than average wealthy children. Based on observing those around them, children in poverty have little reason to have high self-efficacy about self-control.


[Elliot T Berkman Ph.D.:"5 Reasons Why Poverty Reduces Self-Control" (2015/09/05) on PsychologyToday]
posted by Kumicit at 2016/03/19 13:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする





Some people get tempted to use Gödel's theorem as an escape hatch for their own pet theories that they consider "true but unprovable". Math cannot prove everything, therefore logical discussion of God is futile, so there! However, Gödel's theorem has a precise mathematical formulation, and so do the mathematical concepts of logical truth and provability; to even consider the truth or provability of a statement, it first needs to be formalized in the language of mathematical logic. "God", as an idea grounded in our imprecise maps of the real world, is clearly not a well-defined logical formula whose truth or falsehood is even meaningful to consider as a consequence of purely mathematical theories. This argument falls into not even wrong territory.

「正しいが証明不可能」と考えるお気に入りの理論のための脱出口として、ゲーデルの定理を使いたがる人々がいる。数学はすべてを証明できるわけではなく、したがって神の論理的議論は意味がない。さあ、どやあ! しかし、ゲーデルの定理は正確な数学的形式を持っており、論理的正しさと証明可能性についての数学概念を持っている。ステートメントの正しさや証明可能性を論じるだけでも、まず数学論理の記述で、定式化しなければならない。リアルワールドの不正確なマップ上に位置する考えである「神」は、純数学理論の帰結として考えるために、真偽が有意味になるように、明確に定義された論理定式でないことは明らかだ。この種の論は、「間違ってすらいない」論でしかない。

[Rationalwiki: Gödel's incompleteness theorems"]
数学者David Joyceは、エグゼクティブサマリーを読んで誤解する人々が多いという点を指摘しつつ...
People are romantics. They desire the unknown and the unknowable. They seek mysteries. The incompleteness theorems say something like "there's something that's true but we can't know it." The theorems justify their desire for mystery, and they latch on to them. Nonetheless, the incompleteness theorems don't apply outside of formal mathematics.


[David Joyce: Answer #1Why are Gödel's incompleteness theorems so misunderstood and abused?]
posted by Kumicit at 2016/03/14 09:03 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする