創造論者が使ってはいけない論(第26回) -- 上空蒸気層(Vapor Canopy) -- [まとも]

Answers in Genesisの創造論者が使わないほうがいい論

「上空蒸気層(Vapor Canopy)」

これは聖書に直接書かれているわけではないので、教義たりえない。また、ノアの洪水に必要な水量を維持できるという適切なモデルもできていない。しかし、一部の創造論者は、部分的な上空蒸気層(Vapor Canopy)があったと考えている。
このVapor Canopyは、Institute for Creation Researchの創設者で、創造科学の父たるDr. Henry M. Morrisが言いだしたものである。Answers in Genesisは、このVapor Canopyを不適切とする理由を以下のように説明している:
A major problem with the canopy theory (Canopy理論の主たる問題点)

Vardiman[1986] recognized a major difficulty with the canopy theory. The best canopy model still gives an intolerably high temperature at the surface of the earth.

Rush and Vardiman[1990] have attempted a solution, but found that they had to drastically reduce the amount of water vapor in the canopy from a rain equivalent of 40 feet (12 meters) to only 20 inches (.5 meters). Further modelling suggested that a maximum of 2 meters (6.5 feet) of water could be held in such a canopy, even if all relevant factors were adjusted to the best possible values to maximize the amount of water stored[Vardiman and Bousselot, 1998]. Such a reduced canopy would not significantly contribute to the 40 days and nights of rain at the beginning of the flood.

Many creation scientists are now either abandoning the water vapor canopy model or no longer see any need for such a concept, particularly if other reasonable mechanisms could have supplied the rain. In the catastrophic plate tectonics model for the flood, volcanic activity associated with the breaking up of the pre-flood ocean floor would have created a linear geyser (like a wall) of superheated steam from the ocean, causing intense global rain.

Nevertheless, whatever the source or mechanism, the scriptural statement about the windows of heaven opening is an apt description of global torrential rain.

A vapor canopy holding more than 7 feet (two meters) of rain would cause the earth’s surface to be intolerably hot, so a vapor canopy could not have been a significant source of the flood waters.


Rush and Vadiman[1990]はこの問題を解決しようとしたが、Canopyの水蒸気の量を、等価雨量12メートル分から50cm分にまで大きく減らさざるを得ないことを発見した。さらに、モデルでは最大2メートルの等価雨量のCanopyを維持可能だと示唆していたが、それは関連する要因が最大限に水蒸気を維持できるようにした場合であった[Vardiman and Bousselt, 1998]。そこまで削減されたCanopyでは、40日の雨と洪水の始まりにはほとんど効かない。



雨量2メートル以上のVapor Canopyは、地表を強要できない焦熱にするので、洪水の水源として重要なものではありえない。

L. Vardiman, “The Sky Has Fallen”, Proc. First ICC, 1986, 1:113-119 [copy]
D.E. Rush and L. Vardiman, “Pre-flood Vapor Canopy Radiative Temperature Profiles,” Proc. Second ICC, 1990, 2:231-245.
L. Vardiman and K. Bousselot, “Sensitivity Studies on Vapor Canopy Temperature Profiles,” Proc. Fourth ICC, 1998, pp. 607-618. [copy]

[AiG: Noah’s Flood - Where did the water come from?]
Answers in Genesisが引用しているVardimanはInstitute for Creation Researchの所属で、Vapor Canopyを持ちネタにしている。といっても、その不可能性を証明するものだが:

Surface temperatures were most strongly affected by changes in the solar constant. A 50% reduction in the solar constant reduced the surface temperature under the canopy from 335K to 240K. The albedo, solar zenith angle, and cirrus cloud thickness also produced strong effects on surface temperature. However, none of the effects was so dramatic that the concern over limitations on water content in the canopy by hot surface temperatures was eliminated. If all five parameters were introduced into the model simultaneously such that the surface temperature was minimized, it is estimated that the water content of the canopy could possibly be raised to as much as 1.0 meter. This is less than 10% of the water content suggested by Dillow (1982). Unfortunately, this amount of water in a canopy would not contribute significantly to the waters of the Genesis Flood or produce significant pressure and density effects. However, it would produce large differences in temperature, atmospheric stability, cloud formation, and precipitation from that experienced today.

Although this result is disappointing for advocates of a vapor canopy, the story may not yet be complete. It is possible that the high albedo produced at the top of a cloud layer in the canopy may reduce the flux of radiation into the canopy and atmosphere greatly reducing the heating. This effect was not included in the simulations of this paper. The albedo changes modeled were only due to those effects at the surface of the earth.


この結果はVapor Canopy支持者にとっては期待はずれだが、まだこれで終わりではないかもしれない。Canopyの雲の最上層でのアルベドにより、Canopyおよび大気圏への熱の侵入を削減するかもしれない。この効果は本論の計算には入っていない。本論でのアルベドの効果は地表面だけである。

[Larry Vardiman and Karen Bousselot: "Sensitibity Studies on Vapor Canopy Temperature Profiles", Presented at the Fourth International Conference on Creationism, Pittsburgh, PA, August 3-8, 1998]
また、創造論を教義として掲げるSeventh-Day Adventistの系列団体であるGeoscience Research Institute(ノアの洪水の証拠をさがす洪水地質学を研究?する研究職員7名の研究所)も次のように述べている:
In promotion of the Canopy Theory, Chapter 9 moves from observation and good scientific analysis into speculation. Although widely advocated in creationist literature, this theory is based on questionable exegesis of Genesis 1:6-8, and is thoroughly contradicted by basic considerations of natural science. To have the pre-Flood atmosphere contain 40 ft3 of water per square foot of Earth surface would require either surface temperatures greater than 220F (water as vapor), or an unsustainable cloud cover (water as droplets or ice crystals supported by upward air currents).




Vapor Canopyが存在していると、地上が100℃をこえる焦熱状態になるため、ノアの洪水の水源としては使えないという決着をほぼ見ている。Answers in Genesisはカタストロフィックプレートテクトニクスに関心を移しており、無理にVapor Canopy説を維持する必要もなくなっている。



posted by Kumicit at 2008/12/15 00:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Creationism | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



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