宗教教義としてのQuackeryが、信教の自由の名のもとに容認されうるのか? これを判断することになる裁判が進行中だと、New York Timesが報道した。報道によれば、信仰療法を信じた両親が、若年型糖尿病の娘を病院に連れて行かずに死なせた事件で、両親が重過失致死を問われている。
[Trials Loom for Parents Who Embraced Faith Over Medicine (2009/01/21) on NewYork Times, via/copy RichardDawkins.Net]

WESTON, Wis. -- Kara Neumann, 11, had grown so weak that she could not walk or speak. Her parents, who believe that God alone has the ability to heal the sick, prayed for her recovery but did not take her to a doctor.

After an aunt from California called the sheriff’s department here, frantically pleading that the sick child be rescued, an ambulance arrived at the Neumann’s rural home on the outskirts of Wausau and rushed Kara to the hospital. She was pronounced dead on arrival.

The county coroner ruled that she had died from diabetic ketoacidosis resulting from undiagnosed and untreated juvenile diabetes. The condition occurs when the body fails to produce insulin, which leads to severe dehydration and impairment of muscle, lung and heart function.

“Basically everything stops,” said Dr. Louis Philipson, who directs the diabetes center at the University of Chicago Medical Center, explaining what occurs in patients who do not know or “are in denial that they have diabetes.”

Kara Neumann(11歳)は、あまりに弱っていて、歩くことも話すこともできなかった。彼女の両親は、神のみが病を癒せるのだと信じており、神に娘の回復を祈ったが、医者には連れて行かなかった。



University of Chicago Medical Centerの糖尿病センター長をつとめるDr. Louis Philipsonは、「基本的にすべての機能が停止する」と、糖尿病にかかっていることを知らないか、否定している患者に起きることを説明した。

About a month after Kara’s death last March, the Marathon County state attorney, Jill Falstad, brought charges of reckless endangerment against her parents, Dale and Leilani Neumann. Despite the Neumanns’ claim that the charges violated their constitutional right to religious freedom, Judge Vincent Howard of Marathon County Circuit Court ordered Ms. Neumann to stand trial on May 14, and Mr. Neumann on June 23. If convicted, each faces up to 25 years in prison.

“The free exercise clause of the First Amendment protects religious belief,” the judge wrote in his ruling, “but not necessarily conduct.”

Wisconsin law, he noted, exempts a parent or guardian who treats a child with only prayer from being criminally charged with neglecting child welfare laws, but only “as long as a condition is not life threatening.” Kara’s parents, Judge Howard wrote, “were very well aware of her deteriorating medical condition.”

昨年3月にKaraが死亡したから約一か月後に、Marathon郡のJill Falstad州検事は、Karaの両親であるDale and Leilani Neumannを、無謀な重過失致死容疑で告発した。Neumann夫妻は告訴を憲法の定める信教の自由を侵すものだと主張したが、Marathon郡巡回法廷のVincent Howard判事はNeumann夫人は5月14日に、Neumann氏は6月23日に裁判を受けるように命じた。有罪になれば最高25年の懲役に科せられる可能性がある。

「憲法修正第1条の自由条項は信教の自由を保護するが、必ずしも実施させるわけではない。ウィスコンシン州法は、子供を祈りのみで治療する両親や保護者を、児童福祉法違反で刑事罰を与えることから除外している。しかし、それは生命に危険が及ばない限りである。Karaの両親は娘の健康状態を悪化させることを熟知していた」と判決でVincent Howard判事は書いている。

About 300 children have died in the United States in the last 25 years after medical care was withheld on religious grounds, said Rita Swan, executive director of Children’s Health Care Is a Legal Duty, a group based in Iowa that advocates punishment for parents who do not seek medical help when their children need it. Criminal codes in 30 states, including Wisconsin, provide some form of protection for practitioners of faith healing in cases of child neglect and other matters, protection that Ms. Swan’s group opposes.

Shawn Peters, the author of three books on religion and the law, including “When Prayer Fails: Faith Healing, Children and the Law” (Oxford, 2007), said the outcome of the Neumann case was likely to set an important precedent.

“The laws around the country are pretty unsettled,” said Mr. Peters, who teaches religion at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and has been consulted by prosecutors and defense lawyers in the case.

In the last year, two other sets of parents, both in Oregon, were criminally charged because they had not sought medical care for their children on the ground that to do so would have violated their belief in faith healing. One couple were charged with manslaughter in the death of their 15-month-old daughter, who died of pneumonia last March. The other couple were charged with criminally negligent homicide in the death of their 16-year-old son, who died from complications of a urinary tract infection that was severely painful and easily treatable.

自分の子供に医療措置が必要なときに、それを求めたなった両親を処罰することを主張するアイオワ州を拠点とするグループ"Children’s Health Care Is a Legal Duty"の代表Rita Swanは、「米国では過去25年で、宗教的理由で医療措置を受けられずに死亡した子供たちが約300名いる」と言った。ウィスコンシン州を含む30の州の犯罪法令が、児童遺棄などに関して、何らかの保護を信仰療法の開業医に保護措置を提供している。これにはRita Swanのグループは反対している。

"When Prayer Fails: Faith Healing, Children and the Law"(祈りが失敗するとき:信仰療法と子供と法律)[Oxford 2007]など宗教と法律について3冊の著書のある、University of Wisconsin Oshkoshで宗教学を教え、この裁判で検察官と被告側弁護団から意見を聞かれたShawn Petersは次のように述べている。「Neumann裁判の判決は重要な判例となるだろう。米国内の法律はかなり不安定である。」


“Many types of abuses of children are motivated by rigid belief systems,” including severe corporal punishment, said Ms. Swan, a former Christian Scientist whose 16-month-old son, Matthew, died after she postponed taking him to a hospital for treatment of what proved to be meningitis. “We learned the hard way.”

All states give social service authorities the right to go into homes and petition for the removal of children, Ms. Swan said, but cases involving medical care often go unnoticed until too late. Parents who believe in faith healing, she said, may feel threatened by religious authorities who oppose medical treatment. Recalling her own experience, she said, “we knew that once we went to the doctor, we’d be cut off from God.”

「多くの種類の児童虐待が、頑固な信仰に動機づけられている」とRita Swanは言う。彼女は元クリスチャンサイエンスの信者であり、生後16か月の息子Matthewを、髄膜炎の治療に病院に連れていくのを先延ばしにして死なせている。「我々は厳しい方法で学んだ」

「すべての州は社会福祉事業当局に家庭に踏み込んで、子供たちの転居を請願する権利を与えている。しかし、医療措置が必要な事例では、手遅れになるまで見つからないことが多い。信仰療法を信じる両親たちは、医療措置に反対する宗教権威者からの脅威を感じているかもしれない。自分の経験を振り返って、我々は医者のところに行けば、神から切り離されることを知っていた。」とRita Swanは言う。

The crux of the Neumanns’ case, Mr. Peters said, will be whether the parents could have known the seriousness of their daughter’s condition.

Investigators said the Neumanns last took Kara to a doctor when she was 3. According to a police report, the girl had lost the strength to speak the day before she died. “Kara laid down and was unable to move her mouth,” the report said, “and merely made moaning noises and moved her eyes back and forth.”

The courts have ordered regular medical checks for the couple’s other three children, ages 13 to 16, and Judge Howard ordered all the parties in the case not to speak to members of the news media. Neither Ms. Falstad nor the defense lawyers, Gene Linehan and Jay Kronenwetter, would agree to be interviewed.

「Neumann夫妻の裁判の要点は、両親が娘の病状の重大さを知りえたかどうかではない」とShawn Petersは言う。


法廷はこれらの両親たちの他の3人の子供たち(13〜16歳)に、定期的な健康診断を命じた。そして、Howard判事は裁判の関係者すべてに対して、ニュースメディアに対して話すことを禁じた。Falstad夫人も弁護人Gene LinehanとJay Kronenwetterはインタビューに応じなかった。

The Neumanns, who had operated a coffee shop, Monkey Mo’s, in this middle-class suburb in the North Woods, are known locally as followers of an online faith outreach group called Unleavened Bread Ministries, run by a preacher, David Eells. The site shares stories of faith healing and talks about the end of the world.

An essay on the site signed Pastor Bob states that the Bible calls for healing by faith alone. “Jesus never sent anyone to a doctor or a hospital,” the essay says. “Jesus offered healing by one means only! Healing was by faith.”

A link from the site, helptheneumanns.com, asserts that the couple is being persecuted and “charged with the crime of praying.” The site also allows people to contribute to a legal fund for the Neumanns.

中流階級の住むNorth Woods郊外でMonkey Moという珈琲店を経営するNeumann夫妻が、David Eellsという伝道者が運営するオンライン信仰援助活動グループUnleavened Bread Ministriesのメンバーであることは地元では知られていた。そのサイトは信仰療法の物語と、世界の終焉についての話を取り扱っている。


そのサイトからのリンク先 helptheneumanns.com は、夫婦が虐げられ、祈ることの罪で訴追されていると主張している。そのサイトも人々にNeumann夫妻の裁判費用の寄付を求めている。

In the small town of Weston, many people shake their heads with dismay when Kara Neumann is mentioned. Tammy Klemp, 41, who works behind the counter at a convenience store here, said she disagreed with the Neumanns’ passive response to their daughter’s illness but said she was not sure they should go to prison.

“I’ve got mixed feelings,” Ms. Klemp said. “It’s just such a terribly sad case.”

Chris Goebel, 30, a shipping department worker for a window maker, said many people in the area felt strongly that the parents should be punished.

“That little girl wasn’t old enough to make the decision about going to a doctor,” Mr. Goebel said. “And now, because some religious extremists went too far, she’s gone.”

Westonの小さな町では、Kara Neumannのことに触れると、多くの人々が狼狽して頭を抱える。コンビニのレジで働くTammy Klemp (41歳)は「娘の病気に対するNeumann夫妻の受け身な対応には賛成できません。しかし、夫妻が刑務所に入るべきかどうかはわかりまんせん。両方の思いが入り乱れています。ほんとうに悲しい事件です」と言った。

ウインドウメーカーの出荷部門に勤めるChris Gebel (30歳)は「この地域の多くの人々は、両親を罰すべきと強く感じています。彼らの娘は、医者に行くことを自分で決められる年齢ではありませんでした。そして、宗教過激派の行きすぎで、死んでしまいました。」と言った。
裁判の入り口で、信教の自由で争ったものの、Marathon郡巡回法廷のVincent Howard判事は裁判を受けることを命じる判決を下した。これにより、重過失致死についての裁判が始まることになった。

The prosecution of an Oregon couple who allegedly tried to heal their dying son with prayer has focused attention on laws that, in some cases, allow parents to treat their children with faith.

Jeffrey Dean Beagley, 50, and Marci Rae Beagley, 46, pleaded not guilty on Friday to criminally negligent homicide charges in the death of their son, 16-year-old Neil Jeffrey Beagley.

Neil died June 17 from complications of a urinary tract blockage, according to medical examiners. The condition, which doctors say is easily treatable, caused kidney and heart failure.

The Beagleys belong to a religious sect known as the Followers of Christ Church, which rejects medical treatment and, instead, relies on prayer. Several relatives who were with Neil Beagley at the time of his death told police that he had refused medical care, according to the Gladstone, Ore., police


Jeffrey Dean Beagley (50歳)とMarci Rae Beagley(46歳)は、息子Neil Jeffrey Beagley (16歳)の死についての重過失致死の容疑に対して、無罪を主張した。


Beagley夫妻は"Followers of Christ Church"という宗教セクトに所属している。このセクトは医療措置を拒否し、かわりに祈りに頼った。オレゴン州Gladstone警察によれば、Neil Beagleyの死に立ち会った数名の親族は、彼が医療措置を拒否したと述べた。

[Parents charged in faith healing case (2008/10/07) on KTRK-TV Houston]

OREGON CITY, Ore. — A grand jury indicted an Oregon City couple accused of failing to seek medical treatment for their gravely ill daughter who died this month.

Carl Worthington, 28, and Raylene Worthington, 25, ...'s daughter, 15-month-old Ava, died at home March 2 from bacterial bronchial pneumonia and infection. A deputy state medical examiner said Ava's medical problems were treatable with antibiotics.

The Worthingtons belong to Oregon City's Followers of Christ Church. According to church tradition, when members become ill, fellow worshippers pray and anoint them with oil.

Dozens of children have been buried in the parish cemetery over the past 50 years, and a 1998 analysis by The Oregonian newspaper found that many of the deaths could have prevented with medical care.

The 1999 Oregon Legislature eliminated the state's "spiritual-healing defense" in cases of second-degree manslaughter, first- and second-degree criminal mistreatment and nonpayment of child support. Legislators were prompted by the death of 11-year-old Oregon City boy whose diabetes was left untreated. His parents were members of the Followers of Christ Church.

今月死亡した重篤の娘の治療を求めなかったとして、Oregon Cityの夫妻を大陪審は起訴した。

Carl Worthington (28歳)とRaylene Worthington(25歳)夫妻の娘 Ava (15か月)は細菌性気管支肺炎と感染により自宅で3月2日に死亡した。州副検死官はAvaの病気は抗生物質で治療可能だと述べた。

Worthington夫妻はOregon City's Followers of Christ Churchに所属している。教会の伝統によれば、教会の信者が病気になったとき、他の信者たちは祈り、油を塗布する。

過去50年にわたり何十人もの子供たちが教区墓地に葬られたが、1998年のOregonian newspaperの分析により、その多くのが医療措置により死なずに済んだことがわかった。

1999年に、オレゴン州議会は州の「スピリチュアル治療保護」条項から、第2級殺人と第1級および第2級虐待と子供の養育費不払を除外した。州議会は、Oregon Cityの11歳の少年が糖尿病の治療を受けられずに死亡した事件に急きたてられた。その少年の両親は"Followers of Christ Church"の信者だった。

[Oregon Couple Charged in Daughter's Faith-Healing Death (2008/03/29) by The Associated Press via Fox News]
オレゴン州の事件は少なくとも50年は続いている"Followers of Christ Church"に関連するものであり、根が深そうである。

posted by Kumicit at 2009/01/23 01:19 | Comment(2) | TrackBack(3) | Quackery | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
Posted by 匿名希望 at 2009/01/23 20:38
赤ちゃんの手術を宗教的な理由で拒む両親に対し、大阪家裁が親権停止の保全処分を命じる (2006/10)

Posted by Kumicit 管理者コメント at 2009/01/26 01:42



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