「2 + 2 =5」といえば、最も有名なのは、ジョージ・オーウェルの"1984年"である:

'How many fingers am I holding up, Winston?'


'And if the party says that it is not four but five--then how many?'



'How many fingers, Winston?'


The needle went up to sixty.

'How many fingers, Winston?'

'Four! Four! What else can I say? Four!'


'How many fingers, Winston?'

'Four! Stop it, stop it! How can you go on? Four! Four!'

'How many fingers, Winston?'

'Five! Five! Five!'

'No, Winston, that is no use. You are lying. You still think there are
four. How many fingers, please?'

'Four! five! Four! Anything you like. Only stop it, stop the pain!'


'How many fingers, Winston?'

'Four. I suppose there are four. I would see five if I could. I am trying
to see five.'

'Which do you wish: to persuade me that you see five, or really to see

'Really to see them.'

'Again,' said O'Brien.


'How many fingers am I holding up, Winston?'

'I don't know. I don't know. You will kill me if you do that again. Four,
five, six--in all honesty I don't know.'

'Better,' said O'Brien.

[Nineteen Eighty Four]
Indeed Lyons’ book[Eugene Lyons:"ASSIGMENT IN UTOPIA"] must have a made a lasting impression on Orwell. Lyons writes about a soviet slogan “2+2=5” used to describe that the 5-year plan could be achieved in four years. Orwell was to take this equation and incorporate it into his later novel 1984, where the main Character Winston Smith uses it to consider the possibility that the State might declare "two plus two makes five" as a fact; Winston ponders that if everybody believes in it, does that make it true?

Eugene Lyons[ソ連を賞賛した米国のジャーナリストで、後にソ連批判に回った]の本[Assignment in Utopia, ソ連で生活したときの記録, スターリンを徹底的に批判した]はジョージ・オーウェルに強い印象を残したはずだ。Eugene Lyonsは、5か年計画を4年で達成できるというソ連のスローガン「2+2=5」について書いている。ジョージ・オーウェルはこの数式を取り入れ、後の小説「1984年」で、「主人公ウィンストン・スミスが、国家が2+2=5を事実として主張する可能性を考える」ところで使った。ウィンストン・スミスは、もし誰もがこれを信じたら、2+2=5が真理になるのだろうかと、考えた。

[Nigel Linsan Colley: "James Mace Memorial Panel" (2005/06/19)]

Orwell may also have been influenced by Nazi Reichsmarschall Hermann Goring, who once, in a debatable hyperbolic display of loyalty to Adolf Hitler, declared, "If the Fuhrer wants it, two and two makes five!"


[wikipedia: 2 + 2 = 5]
また、wikipedia: 2 + 2 = 5によれば、ジョージ・オーウェルが初出ではなく、ロシアを中心として、もう少し古くからある:
In Fyodor Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground, the protagonist implicitly supports the idea of two plus two making five, spending several paragraphs considering the implications of rejecting the statement "two times two makes four."

His purpose is not ideological, however. Instead, he proposes that it is the free will to choose or reject the logical as well as the illogical that makes mankind human. He adds: "I admit that two times two makes four is an excellent thing, but if we are to give everything its due, two times two makes five is sometimes a very charming thing too."



Victor Hugo said "Now, get seven million five hundred thousand votes to declare that two and two make five, that the straight line is the longest road, that the whole is less than its part; get it declared by eight millions, by ten millions, by a hundred millions of votes, you will not have advanced a step."

ヴィクトル・ユーゴー[1802-1885]は言った。「すぐに、750万票が2+2=5に投票する。一直線が最も長い道のりであり、部分よりも全体の方が小さい。800万票になり、1000万票になり、1億票になれば、一歩も前へ進めなくなる。」[Victor Hugo
: "Napoleon the Little"

The idea seems to have been significant to Russian literature and culture. Ivan Turgenev wrote in prayer, one of his Poems in Prose "Whatever a man prays for, he prays for a miracle. Every prayer reduces itself to this: Great God, grant that twice two be not four."


Also similar sentiments are said to be among Leo Tolstoy's last words when urged to convert back to the Russian Orthodox Church: "Even in the valley of the shadow of death, two and two do not make six." Even turn-of-the-century Russian newspaper columnists used the phrase to suggest the moral confusion of the age (e.g. Novoe vremia (New Times), 31 October 1900.

ロシア正教会へと立ち返るように主張されたときの、レフ・トルストイ[1828-1910]の最後の言葉のひとつが同様な気分を示していると言われている:「死の闇の谷においても2+2=6にはならない。」 世紀の変わり目に、ロシアの新聞コラムニストはこのフレーズを、時代のモラルの混乱を示唆するのに使った[Novoe vremia 1900/10/31]。

[wikipedia: 2 + 2 = 5]

posted by Kumicit at 2009/01/31 00:01 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



コメント: [必須入力]