2009年2月1日にBBCが中国の人口家族計画当局の幹部Jiang Fanの発言として、「中国で出生時欠損症の発生率の増加は環境汚染によるもの」と報じた。
[China birth defects 'up sharply' (2009/02/01) on BBC]

A senior family planning official in China has noted an alarming rise in the number of babies with birth defects, a Chinese media report says.
Jiang Fan, from China's National Population and Family Planning Commission, said environmental pollution was a cause of the increase.
The coal-mining heartland of Shanxi province had the biggest problem.

中国人口家族計画のJiang Fanが増加の原因は環境汚染だと述べた。

China has reported the trend before, and it was not clear if Mr Jiang was commenting on new or old statistics.

中国は以前、出生時欠損症の発生率の増加を報告しているが、Jiang Fanのコメントがこの統計値を指したものか、新たな報告に基づくものか明らかではない。

A 2007 commission report said the rate of defects had risen 40% since 2001, from 104.9 per 10,000 births to 145.5 in 2006.
Officials blame emissions from Shanxi's large coal and chemical industry for the problems there.
"The problem of birth defects is related to environmental pollution, especially in eight main coal zones," said An Huanxiao, the director of Shanxi provincial family planning agency.

「出生時欠損症の問題は、環境汚染、特に8つの主要な産炭地と関連している」と山西省家族計画の長であるAn Huanxiaoが述べていた。

この報道は、2009年1月31日付のChina Dailyの報道を引用する形である。
[Chen Jia: "Birth defects soar due to pollution" (2009/01/31) on China Daily]

Every 30 seconds, a baby is born with physical defects in China, all thanks to the country's degrading environment, an official of the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) has said.


"The number of newborns with birth defects is constantly increasing in both urban and rural areas," Jiang Fan, vice-minister of the NPFPC said at a conference in Beijing recently. "And the rather alarming increase has forced us to kick off a high-level prevention plan."
She said that "more than half" of the pregnancies in the country had benefited from the commission's scientific guidance since 2007.
A free pre-pregnant examination program has covered eight provinces with the highest rate of birth defects, she said, refusing to divulge further details.

「出生時欠損症の新生児の数は、都市部でも農村部でも一定して増加している。憂慮すべき増加により、我々は高度な対策の開始を求められている。2007年以後、中国の半数の妊娠女性に、中国人口家族計画の科学的ガイダンスが役立っている。妊娠前診断の無償実施は、出生時欠損症の発生率の高い8つの地域をカバーしている。」と中国人口家族計画の副大臣Jian Fanは最近北京で開催された会議で述べたが、その詳細は述べなかった。

"The government must take measures to prevent birth defects," Li Bin, minister of the NPFPC said.

中国人口家族計画のLi Binは「政府は出生時欠損症の抑制対策をとらなければならない」と述べた。

According to Hu Yali, a professor at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University, environmental pollution accounts for "10 percent of the causes" of physical defects in Chinese infants.
"Our research shows that chemical waste pollution has been the main factor to influence the health of pregnant women and their babies in some areas," she was quoted as having said by Takungpao.com.

南京大のAffiliated Drum Tower HospitalのHu Yali教授によれば、中国の赤ちゃんの肉体的欠損症の原因の10%が環境汚染である。
我々の研究で、化学廃棄物汚染が、この地域の妊娠女性および胎児の健康に影響する主たる要因であることが明らかになった。Takungpao.comの引用で、Hu Yali教授は述べている。

China's coal-rich Shanxi province, a center of noxious emissions from large-scale chemical industries, has recorded the highest rate of birth defects, NPFPC said.


"The problem of birth defects is related to environmental pollution, especially in eight main coal zones," said An Huanxiao, the director of Shanxi provincial family planning agency.

「出生時欠損症の問題は環境汚染、特に主要な8つの炭田地域の関連している」と山西省家族計画の長であるAn Huanxiaoは述べた。

Researchers also linked the high rate of birth defects in the country to air pollution.
If pregnant women are exposed to air pollution, it increases the risk of giving birth to under-weight infants, said a study conducted by Yale University.
"The higher the level of exposure to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), the greater is the risk of having low-weight babies," it said.

妊娠女性が大気汚染にされされると、低体重の赤ちゃんを産むリスクが高まると、Yale Universitが実行した研究で明らかにあった。「高レベルの窒素酸化物や一酸化炭素や PM2.5およびPM10の粒子は、低体重の赤ちゃんを産むリスクを大きくする」と研究は述べている。

Environmental exposure to specific combustion pollutants during pregnancy can result in chromosomal abnormalities in fetal tissues, according to another research done by the Columbia University Center for Children's Environmental Health.

Columbia UniversityのCenter for Children's Environmental Healthの研究によれば、妊娠中に特定の燃焼汚染物に晒されると、胎児の染色体異常につながる場合がある。

Pan Jianping, a professor of the Women and Child Health Research Office under Xi'an Jiaotong University, warned that the increasing rate of birth defects among Chinese infants would soon become a social problem, which "will influence economic development and the quality of life".

"Economic pressure is very heavy for families raising babies with physical defects, particularly for those who live in poor rural areas," he said, adding that the families also have to cope with psychological trauma due to the social stigma attached to abnormal children.

Bad living habits, unbalanced nutritional diets, and old-age pregnancies are also possible factors that cause birth defects in newborns, he said

Xi'an Jiaotong UniversityのWomen and Child Health Research Officeの教授であるPan Jianpingは「中国の出生時欠損症の発生率の増加が社会問題になり、経済発展と生活の質に言え京を及ぼすと警告する。「肉体的欠損を持つ赤ちゃんを産んだ家族には経済的圧力が重くのしかかる。特に貧しい農村地域の住む家族には。さらに家族には、異常児にまつわる社会的烙印による精神的トラウマとも立ち向かっていかなければならない。悪い住環境、バランスの悪い食事、高齢妊娠も、新生児の出生時欠損症の原因となる。」と述べた。
China Dailyの報道でも、新たな数値が出てきたのかは書かれていない。指摘内容は2007年の報道の繰り返しだが、記事自体は、新たに中国人口家族計画のJiang Fanの発言を契機とした報道である。



2005/05/30 中国政府の調査報告

中国政府"The National Working Committee for Children and Women"の調査報告(Country Report on the Child Development in China, 2003-2004)に、「Birth defects become increasingly acute"(出生時欠損が深刻になってきている)」という記述がみられる:
[China Publishes Report on Child Development (2005/05/30) on China.org.cn]

The National Working Committee for Children and Women (NWCCW) issued a national report on child development on May 27. The three-chapter report discusses the policies adopted and actions taken by the government to protect the legitimate rights and interests of children in the last few years. It also illustrates the improvements and progress made in children’s health and education, and pinpoints the problems and future challenges facing the nation on child development issues. The full text of the report follows:

Country Report on the Child Development in China, 2003-2004


2. Some imperatives need to be dealt with for child survival and development

1) Birth defects become increasingly acute

About 800,000 to 1 million people are born with defects every year in China. Besides death, disability as a result of birth defects has heavily burdened some households and the society. In recent years, there has been an increase in birth defects caused by environmental, genetic and or a combination of these factors. The removal of the compulsory pre-marital physical examination has in effect lowered the possibility of early warning against birth defects. Problems brought about by birth defects therefore are becoming increasingly troublesome.

2006/09/20 新華社通信の報道

[Rising incidence of birth defects in China rings alarm (2006/09/20) on 新華社通信]

HANGZHOU, Sept. 20 (Xinhua) -- Rising numbers of birth defects in parts of China have sparked a debate on the resumption of compulsory pre-marital health checks and calls for more research into the causes.


Figures released by Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces in advance of the publication of national figures by the Ministry of Health next week show alarming rises in the number of birth defects.

In Zhejiang, the incidence of babies with birth defects was 1.15 percent in 2003 -- the year compulsory pre-marital health checks were scrapped -- rising to 1.33 percent in 2004 and 1.47 percent last year.

About 480,000 babies are born in Zhejiang each year, which means about 7,200 babies were born with defects in 2005.




In the southern province of Guangdong, the incidence has risen from 0.96 percent ten years ago to 2.12 percent today.


In Shanghai, birth defects have been reported as the top killer of babies for the past 10 years.


Cleft palette, neural tube defects, hyperdactylia (excessive numbers of fingers or toes), congenital heart disease and hydrocephalus (water on the brain) are the top five birth defects among Chinese babies.


Experts said hereditary diseases, viral infections, environmental pollution, unhealthy lifestyles and poor nutrition were among the main known causes.


...Editor: Gao Ying
この記事を引用する形の報道がChina Dailyなどに掲載された(配信はAFP)。


China Dailyや、これを引用する形でAFPReutersが、出生時欠損症と環境汚染について報道した。
[China birth defects soar due to pollution: report (2007/10/29) on Reuters]

BEIJING (Reuters) - Birth defects in Chinese infants have soared nearly 40 percent since 2001, a government report said, and officials linked the rise to China's worsening environmental degradation.


The rate of defects had risen from 104.9 per 10,000 births in 2001, to 145.5 in 2006, affecting nearly one in 10 families, China's National Population and Family Planning Commission said in a report on its Web site (www.chinapop.gov.cn).

2001年には104.9/10000だった出生時欠損症の発生率は、2006年には145.5/10000に増加し、10家族のうち1家族が影響を受けると、China's National Population and Family Planning Commissionはウェブサイトの報告書で述べた。

Infants with birth defects now accounted for "about 4 to 6 percent of total births every year," the family planning agency said. Of these, 30 percent would die and 40 percent would be "disabled."


The World Health Organization estimates about 3 to 5 percent of children worldwide are born with birth defects.


China's coal-rich northern province of Shanxi, a centre of noxious emissions from large-scale coke and chemical industries, had the highest rate of defects, Xinhua news agency said in a report carried by Monday's Beijing News.


"The incidence of birth defects is related to environmental pollution," the newspaper quoted An Huanxiao, director of Shanxi's provincial family planning agency, as saying.
"The survey's statistics show that birth defects in Shanxi's eight large coal-mining regions are far above the national average," An said.

とAn Huanxiaoの発言を新聞は引用した。
「調査の統計は、山西省の8つの大きな採炭地方の出生時欠損症の発生率が、中国全体の平均値をはるかに超えていることを示している」とAn Huanxiaoは言った。

The report said about 2 to 3 million babies are born in China with "visible defects" every year, and a further 8 to 12 million would develop defects within months or years after birth.


Officials had also linked high defect rates to poor, rural areas, and regions that suffered "high rates of illness."
About 460,000 Chinese die prematurely each year from breathing polluted air and drinking dirty water, according to a World Bank study.



Year Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

2000 28.92
2001 28.08
2002 27.25
2003 25.26
2004 25.28
2005 24.18
2006 23.12
2007 22.12
2008 21.16
この数字は、毎年のCIA World Factbookからの引用である。現在参照可能なバージョンには、2008年の推定値が載っている:
[CIA World Factbook -- Infant mortality rate]

China total: 21.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#2091">CIA World Factbook -- Definition]

Infant mortality rate This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

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