[wikipedia:homeopathy -- provings]

hahnemann experimented on himself and others for several years before using remedies on patients. his experiments did not initially consist of giving remedies to the sick, because he thought that the most similar remedy, by virtue of its ability to induce symptoms similar to the disease itself, would make it impossible to determine which symptoms came from the remedy and which from the disease itself. therefore, sick people were excluded from these experiments. the method used for determining which remedies were suitable for specific diseases was called "proving", after the original german word "prufung", meaning "test". a homeopathic proving is the method by which the profile of a homeopathic remedy is determined.[71]


at first hahnemann used material doses for provings, but he later advocated proving with remedies at a 30c dilution,[54] and most modern provings are carried out using ultradilute remedies in which it is highly unlikely that any of the original molecules remain.[72] during the proving process, hahnemann administered remedies to healthy volunteers, and the resulting symptoms were compiled by observers into a "drug picture". the volunteers were observed for months at a time and made to keep extensive journals detailing all of their symptoms at specific times throughout the day. they were forbidden from consuming coffee, tea, spices, or wine for the duration of the experiment; playing chess was also prohibited because hahnemann considered it to be "too exciting", though they were allowed to drink beer and encouraged to exercise in moderation. after the experiments were over, hahnemann made the volunteers take an oath swearing that what they reported in their journals was the truth, at which time he would interrogate them extensively concerning their symptoms.

最初は、hahnemannは物質そのものを服用していたが、後に彼は30c希釈(10-60)のレメディを使ったprovingを推進するようになった。そして、現代最新のprovingでは、元の分子が1個も残られない超希釈を使う。proving過程で、hahemannはレメディを健常者に服用させ、結果として生じた症状を観察者に"drug picture"へ記録させた。ボランティアたちは数カ月にわたって観察され、一日の特定時間の症状を詳細に記録することを求められた。ボランティアたちは実験期間中は、コーヒーや紅茶やスパイスやワインを禁じられた。hahnemannは同じく、興奮しすぎると考えてチェスも禁じた。しかし、ビールやほどよい運動は推奨された。実験が終わると、hahnemaaはボランティアに記録した詳細が真実であることを宣誓させた。その際に、hahnemannはボランティアたちの症状について広範囲な質問をした。

provings have been described as important in the development of the clinical trial, due to their early use of simple control groups, systematic and quantitative procedures, and some of the first application of statistics in medicine.[73] the lengthy records of self-experimentation by homeopaths have occasionally proven useful in the development of modern drugs: for example, evidence that nitroglycerin might be useful as a treatment for angina was discovered by looking through homeopathic provings, though homeopaths themselves never used it for that purpose at that time.[74] the first recorded provings were published by hahnemann in his 1796 essay on a new principle.[75] his fragmenta de viribus (1805)[76] contained the results of 27 provings, and his 1810 materia medica pura contained 65.[77] for james tyler kent's 1905 lectures on homoeopathic materia medica, 217 remedies underwent provings and newer substances are continually added to contemporary versions.

単純な対照群と系統的かつ定量的手順を使い、医学における統計利用だったので、provingは臨床試験の発展におい重要であるとされる。ホメオパスたちによる自己実験の長々しい記録は、ときとして薬品開発に役に立つ。ホメオパスたちは決してその目的には使わなかったが、ニトログリセリンが狭心症の治療に有効かもしれないという証拠がホメオパシーのprovingの記録を見ることで発見された。記録に残る最初のprovingはhahnemannが1796年に書いた新たな原則についてのエッセイとして発表された。彼の"fragmeta de viribus"(1805)には27回のprovingが記載され、1810年のmatera medica puraには65回のprovingが記載されている。james tyler kentの1905年のhomoeopathic materia medicaについての講演では、217のレメディがprovingを経ていて、常に新しい物質が付け加えられ続けている。

54.^ a b hahnemann s (1921), the organon of the healing art (6th ed.), aphorism 128 .
71.^ dantas f, fisher p, walach h et al. (2007), "a systematic review of the quality of homeopathic pathogenetic trials published from 1945 to 1995", homeopathy 96 (1): 4?16, doi:10.1016/j.homp.2006.11.005, pmid 17227742 .
72.^ kayne sb (2006), homeopathic pharmacy: theory and practice (2 ed.), elsevier health sciences, pp. 52, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=w2ifchjytsyc&pg=pa52&dq=homeopathic+proving+method .
73.^ cassedy jh (1999), american medicine and statistical thinking, 1800?1860, iuniverse, isbn 978-1-58348428-9 .
74.^ fye wb (1986), "nitroglycerin: a homeopathic remedy" (pdf), circulation 73 (1): 21?9, pmid 2866851, http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/73/1/21.pdf .
75.^ hahnemann s (1796), "versuch uber ein neues prinzip zur auffindung der heilkrafte der arzneisubstanzen, nebst einigen blicken auf die bisherigen" (in german), hufelands journal ii (3) .
76.^ hahnemann s (1805) (in latin), fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis, leipzig .
77.^ hahnemann s, stapf e, gross g, de brunnow eg (1826-1828) (in latin), materia medica pura; sive, doctrina de medicamentorum viribus in corpore humano sano observatis; e germanico sermone in latinum conversa., dresden: arnold, oclc 14840659 .

creighton university代替医療のページの記載でも同様:
[homeopathy -- provings]

to attempt determine which homeopathic remedies would be best for various ailments, hahnemann and others engaged in a series of provings. in what can be viewed as early clinical trials of natural substances, hahnemann and others self- administered pharmacologically active doses of many different substances, then carefully recorded the symptoms that resulted in a materia medica. these provings were based on hahnemann's early study of cinchona bark. he states:

どのホメオパシーレメディが多様な病気のどれに対してベストなのかを定めるために、hahnemannたちは一連のprovingを行った。これは、天然物質の初期の臨床試験として見ることができて、hahnemannたちは多くの物質の薬効成分を自己管理して、慎重に症状をmateria medicaに記録した。これらのprovingは、hahnemannのキナノキ皮の初期研究に基づいている。hahnemannは次のように書いている:
there is, therefore, no other possible way in which the peculiar effects of medicines on the health of individuals can be accurately ascertained .... than to administer the several medicines experimentally, in moderate doses, to healthy persons, in order to ascertain what changes, symptoms and signs of their influence each individually produces on the health of the body and of the mind; that is to say, what disease elements they are able and tend to produce, since, as has been demonstrated , all the curative power of medicines lies in this power they possess of changing the state of man's health, and is revealed by observation of the latter.

hahnemann felt that the best proving was done on oneself. since the proving is based on self observation hahnemann cautions that the person doing the proving must be trustworthy, intelligent and have keen observational skills. some provings were taken from the literature, particularly where poisonings from a known agent produced a specific pattern of symptoms or lesions.


hahnemann stressed that homeopaths should add to the materia medica with his own provings:

hahnemannはホメオパス自身によるprovingによってmateria medicaを増強すべきだと強調した:
at first, about forty years ago, i was the only person who made the provings of the pure powders of medicines the most important of his occupations. since then i have been assisted in this by some young men, who instituted experiments on themselves, and whose observations i have critically revised. following these some genuine work of this kind was done by a few others. but what shall we not be able to effect in the way of curing in the whole extent of the infinitely large domain of disease, when numbers of accurate and trustworthy observers shall have rendered their services in enriching this, the only true materia medica, by careful experiments on themselves! the healing art will then come near the mathematical sciences in certainty. (organon, sixth edition)

初めの40年間は、ホメオパスの仕事で最も重要なことである、薬剤の純粋な粉末のprovingを唯ひとりでやってきた。その後、自ら実験を行う若者たちに手伝ってもらうようになった。そして、私は彼らの観察記録を批判的にレビューした。これら幾つかの本物の成果の後に数名が続いた。しかし、数多くの正確で信頼できる観察者が、自分たち自身による注意深い実験によって、唯一真のmateria medicaを増強していくとき、無数にある病気のすべてを、治療法を有効なものにしていけるだろう。そうすれば、医術は確実性において数理科学に近づく。

however, most of the homeopathic provings that are currently referred to in the us homeopathic pharmacopoeia, which provide the basis for homeopathic prescribing, come from the time of hahnemann.

しかし、ホメオパシーの基礎を規定する現在の"us homeopathic pharmacopoeia"に記載されるホメオパシーprovingの大半はhahnemannの時代のものである。

なお、現在は二重盲検なprovingもあるようだ[ie sb3]。ただ、いずれによせ、治療効果については何も客観的な調査はない。

その馬鹿馬鹿しさをquackwatchのstephen barrett, m.d.は次のように書いている:
[stephen barrett, m.d.: "homeopathy's "law of similars""]

proponents call homeopathy's defining principle the "law of similars." ("like cures like.") this holds that substances that cause healthy people to get symptoms can cure diseases that have these symptoms. this idea is a form of "sympathetic magic" similar to the primitive idea that eating the heart of a lion will make a person brave.


homeopathy's founder, samuel hahnemann, m.d., is said to have based his theory on an experience in which he ingested cinchona bark, the source of quinine used to treat malaria. after taking it, he experienced thirst, throbbing in the head, and fever -- symptoms common to malaria. he decided that the drug's power to cure the disease arose from its ability to produce symptoms similar to the disease itself. he and his early followers then conducted "provings" in which they administered herbs, minerals, and other substances to healthy people, including themselves, and kept detailed records of what they observed.

ホメオパシーの創始者samuel hahnemann, m.d.は、自らの理論の基礎を、マラリア治療に使われるキニーネの原料であるキナノキ皮を摂取したときの経験に置いていたと言われている。キニーネ摂取後、彼は渇きと頭痛と発熱を経験した。これらマラリアでみられる症状である。彼は、薬物が病気を治す力は、病気と良く似た症状を起こす能力によるものだと判断した。彼と彼の初期の支持者たちは、ハーブやミネラルやその他の物質を自分たちを含む健康な人々に投与して、観察したことを詳細に記録に残すという、provingを行った。

the symptoms reported during provings have been compiled into lengthy reference books called materia medica, which proponents regard as gospel. however, most of the provings were done between 100 and 200 years ago, when medical science was in its infancy. very little was known about the nature of health and disease or about how to conduct experiments that separate cause and effect from coincidence.

proving期間中に報告された症状はまとめられて、materia medicaと呼ばれる長々しい参考図書に記載された。これは支持者からは福音書として扱われている。しかし、大半のprovingは100〜200年前に行われていて、。その頃の医学はまだ未発達だった。健康と病気の性質も、原因と結果を偶然から識別するための実験方法も、ほとんど知られていなかった。

the fact that a symptom occurs after taking a substance can have several explanations. during a typical day, most people experience occasional unpleasant thoughts and bodily sensations. to determine whether a substance actually causes a symptom, it would be necessary to compare people who receive the substance with people who receive a control substance. to guard against bias, neither the experimenters nor the test subjects should know who gets which.


the provings used to compile materia medica were not conducted in this manner. there were wide variations in the amounts of substances administered, the timing of the administrations, the way in which data were recorded, and the length of the studies -- and there were no controls. thus it is impossible to know whether the reported symptoms were actually related to administration of the test substances. in addition, many symptoms may have resulted from suggestibility of the test subjects.

materia medicaを編纂するために使われたprovingはそのような方法では行われなかった。摂取した量も、摂取したタイミングも、データ記録方法も、実験期間もまちまちだった。そして対照群もなかった。したがって、報告された症状が実際に実験物質摂取によるものか知りようがない。さらに、実験物質についての暗示から多くの症状が起きた可能性もある。

"a dictionary of practical materia medica," a widely used 3-volume set authored by john henry clarke, m.d., illustrates the foolishness involved in provings. the book contains about 2,500 pages that describe the symptoms that supposedly were reported following administration of about 1200 substances. most descriptive pages contain more than 100 claims, which means that total number of symptoms exceeds 200,000. the book does not indicate when or how the original "provings" were done or who reported most of the specific findings. thus it would be impossible to examine whether the studies were properly done, who did them, and whether the findings were accurately reported.

john henry clarke, m.d.が執筆した3巻構成の"a dictionary of practical materia medica"はprovingのアフォさを例示している。この本は約2500ページあって、1200の物質について摂取後の症状をおそらく報告された症状を記述している。大半の記述は100以上の主張を含んでおり、これは症状の合計が20万を超えることを意味する。この本はもともとのprovingがいつ、どのようにして実行されたか、あるいは大半の発見を誰がしたか、記述していない。したがって、これらの研究が適切に行われたか、誰が行ったか、発見が正確に報告されたか確かめようがない。

many of the listed symptoms are odd. lac felinum includes "cannot bear the smell of clams, of which she is naturally fond." lacrodectus mactans includes "screams fearfully, exclaiming that she would lose her breath and die." magnesia sulphurica includes "stupidity." oleum animale includes "singing, tinkling, and buzzing in ears." natrum carbonicum includes "hurries out of bed in the morning." some listings include symptoms that occur predominantly on one side of the body, such as "sickening sensation in left testicle." all are supposedly useful in determining whether the patient might "fit" a particular remedy.

列挙された症状の多くは変なものだ。lac felinumだと「彼女が通常は好んでいるハマグリの匂いに耐えられない」がある。またlacrodectus mactansだと「恐怖に叫び、息が詰まって死にそうだと叫んだ」 magnesia sulphuricaだと「アフォ」 oleum animaleだと「歌や、さえずりやガヤガヤが耳の中」 natrm carbonicumだと「朝、ベッドから飛び起きる」 列挙されたものには「左の睾丸に、吐き気をもようさせる感覚」とか、身体の片方に生じる症状もある。これらはすべて、患者が特定のレメディに「適合」するか判断するの役立つらしい。

even if the proving reports were consistent, there is no logical reason why substances that could produce symptoms should cure such symptoms. nor is there evidence from appropriately designed studies that the "law of similars" actually operates. the real way to test something works is to test whether it helps sick people. this requires clinical trials in which people who get the test substance are compared with people who do not. no homeopathic product has ever been proven effective; and the vast majority of products have never even been clinically tested.


this article was posted on march 20, 2002


キニーネはマラリア原虫(plasmodium falciparum)を死滅させることで患者を治療するもので、副作用が強く退場したり、薬物耐性マラリア原虫の登場で再登場したりしている。
[マラリア: メルクマニュアル家庭版





ちなみに、実際の"a dictionary of practical materia medica"の記述はこんなかんじ:
[a dictionary of practical materia medica by john henry clarke]


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