John G Westの"Dehumanized in the Name of Science" (3/7) ユートピア的理想主義

インテリジェントデザインの本山たるDiscovery Instituteのインテリジェントデザイン部門であるCenter for Science and Cultureの副センター長であり、シニアフェローである社会学者Dr. John G. Westが、自著"Darwin Day in Americaをダイジェストした"The Abolition of Man?"を読むシリーズ


A second influence of scientific materialism on public policy has been the cultivation of a vigorous form of utopianism. Believing they possessed the key to understanding and ultimately controlling human behavior, defenders of scientific materialism over the past century were supremely confident that science could usher in heaven on earth if experts were only permitted to implement its teachings without obstruction.

Their heady optimism is not difficult to understand. By the late 19th century, science had produced marvelous advances in medicine, agriculture, sanitation, and transportation. Why could the triumphs of the scientific method over the natural world not be extended to the social sphere? If science could prevent the spread of physical diseases like smallpox, why could it not also prevent out breaks of social diseases like crime and poverty? If science could breed better strains of cattle and corn, why could it not breed better kinds of people?


彼らの目がくらむ楽観主義を、理解するのは難しいことではない。19世紀後半までに、科学は医療、農業、公衆衛生と交通手段において、素晴らしい進歩を実現した。どうして、自然界についての科学的研究法の勝利を、社会分野にまで広げられないのか? 科学が天然痘のような身体の病気の拡散を防ぐことができるなら、犯罪や貧困のような社会的病気の拡散を防げないわけがない。科学が牛やコーンの良い品種を生み出せるのであれば、良い種類の人々を育成できない理由があるだろうか?

Addressing the American Breeders Association in 1913, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson acknowledged that the wholesale replacement of "inferior" human stocks with "the best part of the human race...at first seems like an Utopian vision" but then quickly added: "Why should it not come? Must science stop in its beneficence with the plant and the animal? Is not man, after all, the architect of his own racial destiny?"[9]

1913年にAmerican Breeders Associationで演説した米国農務長官James Wilsonは「劣った」人間の在庫を「人類の最良の部分」で卸の段階で置き換えることは「初めは夢想的に思える」が、「何故、そうならないのだろうか? 科学の効用を植物と動物で止めるべきだろうか? 結局は、人間は自らの種の運命の開拓者ではないのか?」と述べた。

Wilson's rosy rhetoric revealed the startling naivete at the heart of the scientific materialist agenda. Scientists and policymakers who were readily skeptical of claims made by religion or tradition turned out to be supremely credulous when it came to claims made in the name of science. They accepted at face value the purported benefits of such procedures as lobotomies, psychosurgery, and forced sterilization. They made grand promises about how science could solve intractable social problems such as crime and poverty. They showed little appreciation for the fact that science, like all human endeavors, could be misused, especially when allied with political power.


[9]James Wilson, "Presidential Address," American Breeders Magazine Vol. 4, No.1 (First Quarter, 1913), p. 56.
この部分のDr. John G WestによるJames Wilson農務長官の演説の引用は、かなりアクロバチックである。原文をみると...
A new line of public service has recently developed which promises more far-reaching results than those relating to improvements through breeding: The work of our agricultural research institutions has demonstrated that we can slowly but surely and very economically increase production by finding those best families, strains, varieties, breeds, and sub-breeds which yield the largest net profits per acre or per farm, and multiply them so that they will supplant all inferior forms. To so educate, place in position of advantage, and reward the best part of the human race that they will rapidly multiply and become the great improved body of people which can best utilize the opportunities of this beautiful earth at first seems like an Utopian vision. Like world peace, however, it may come; and may we not all ask: Why should it not come? Must science stop in its beneficence with the plant and animal? Is not man, after all, the architect of his own racial destiny? Cannot the best people of the best races be wise enough to multiply and become dominant in numbers as well as in efficiency and goodness?

育種による改善に関するものよりも、さらに広範にわたる結果を約束する、新たな公共事業が開発された。我々の農業研究機関は、単位面積当たり、あるいは農場当たりの純利益を実現し、劣った形態に置き換わるように繁殖する、最良の科・株・変種・品種・亜品種を見つけることで、我々がゆっくりだが、確実に経済的に生産を増加させられることを示した。そのように教育することで、有利な立場におき、人類の最良の部分に報酬を与えることで、この美しい地球の可能性を最も利用することができる人々の大きな改善された集団とする。初めは夢想的に思えるかもしれない。しかし、それは世界平和のように実現するかもしれない。我々はこう問うてはいけないのだろうか:何故、そうならないのだろうか? 科学の効用を植物と動物で止めるべきだろうか? 結局は、人間は自らの種の運命の開拓者ではないのか? 最良人種の最良の人々は効率や長所のみならず、繁殖して数でも支配的になるに、十分に賢明なはずではないのか?

"単語とフレーズの組み合わせで、Wilsonの主張を作っていて、なんとなく、元の意味を反映していなくもない"というDr. John G Westの"引用"である。原文に"replacement"がなくて、これを補うことで、かなり強い優生な主張に見せている。

続いて、優生について例を挙げるDr. John G West:
Eugenist Herbert Walter sanguinely predicted that nothing like "the Spanish Inquisition or...the Salem witchcraft persecution" would take place in an age of modern science. Only two decades before the Nazis ascended to power in Germany, Walter predicted that "it is unlikely that the world will ever see another great religious inquisition, or that in applying to man the newly found laws of heredity there will ever be undertaken an equally deplorable eugenic inquisition."[10] Eugenist Harry Laughlin similarly asserted with confidence that no one-- not even one person--had been wrongly sterilized in America.[11]

優生学者Herbert Walterは「スペインの宗教裁判所やセイラムの魔女迫害」のようなことは現代科学の時代には起きないと楽観的に予測した。ナチがドイツで政権をとる、わずか20年前にWalterは「世界が新たに大規模な宗教的な徹底調査あるいは、新発見の遺伝法則を人間に適用しようとして、等しく嘆かわしい優生学的徹底的な調査がなされることは、ありそうにない。」と予測した。[10]  優生学者Harry Laughlinは同様に自信をもって、ただの1人も、米国で誤って断種手術を受けた者はいないと主張した。[11]

[10]Herbert Walter, "Human Conservation," in Horatio Hackett Newman, Evolution, Genetics and Eugenics, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932), p. 531. The essay was reprinted from a book published by Walter in 1913.

[11]Harry Hamilton Laughlin et al., Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization (Chicago: Fred J. Ringley Co., 1930), p. 79.
[Herbert Eugene Walter: "Genetics: an introduction to the study of heredity" (1922), P334-335]

Dr. C. V. Chapin recently said with reference to the eugenic regulation of marriage by physician's certificate: "The causes of heredity are many and very conflicting. The subject is a difficult one, and I for one would hesitate to say, in a great many cases where I have a pretty good knowledge of the family, where marriage would, or would not, be desirable."

Dr. C.V. Chapinは医者の証明書による結婚の優生規制に関して「遺伝要因は多くて非常に矛盾している。この問題は困難なものであり、結婚が望ましいものか否かについて、家族についての非常に適切な知識を持っていると言うのを躊躇するケースが大多数である。」と述べている。

Desirability and undesirability must always be regarded as relative terms more or less undefinable. In attempting to define them, it makes a great difference whether the interested party holds to a puritan or a cavalier standard. To show how far human judgment may err as well as how radically human opinion changes, there were in England, as recently as 1819, 233 crimes punishable by death according to law.


One needs only to recall the days of the Spanish Inquisition or of the Salem witchcraft persecution to realize what fearful blunders human judgment is capable of, but it is unlikely that the world will ever see another great religious inquisition, or that in applying to man the newly found laws of heredity there will ever be undertaken an equally deplorable eugenic inquisition.


It is quite apparent, finally, that although great caution and broadness of vision must be exercised in bringing about the fulfillment of the highest eugenic ideals, nevertheless in this direction lies the future path of human achievement.

Herbert Eugene Walterの記述は控えめなものだ。遺伝的要因で単純に人間を判断できないことがわかっているので、宗教裁判のような形にはなりそうにないと言っている。また、ナチ政権の出現と行動を予測できなかったことを甘いというDr. John G Westの主張は、優生思想にのってしまったメインラインバプテストなどにもあてはまることである。

続いて、Harry Hamilton Laughlinも:
[Harry Hamilton Laughlin et al., Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization (1930), p.79]

The problem of hereditary inadequacy is a major one. The states have thus far used eugenical sterilization very cautiously, and only in extreme cases, but such work has served to acquaint the American people with the usefulness of the experiment, and has paved the way for a more extensive application in full accord with a most conservative program. Sexual sterilization of degenerates is not a cure-all for the problem; it will not uproot degeneracy forthwith, but it is one of the most effective instruments which the several American states can now use legally in promoting race betterment on its negative side, that is, by preventing reproduction by its most degenerate families.


It is of especial value to note that, of the 8515 operations which have been performed up to January 1, 1928, under several sterilization laws of the different states, no one has yet suggested that in a single instance has the state made an eugenical error; that is, that it has by legalized sterilization prevented reproduction by an individual whose offspring would, by any token of biology or statistics, probably have been a credit to the state.

「自信をもって、ただの1人も、米国で誤って(wrongly)断種手術を受けた者はいないと主張した」というDr. John G Westの記述は"だいたいあってる"が、Harry Hamilton Laughlinの原文は"優生学的誤り(eugenical error)"よりは強い意味になっている。

AAAS president Charles Eliot at least acknowledged the prospect that physical and chemical science could be enlisted "as means of destruction and death." But even he thought the application of biology to society posed no danger: "Biological science has great advantage in this respect over physical and chemical [science]. It can not so frequently or easily be applied to evil ends."[12] Eliot wrote those words in 1915 as the eugenics movement was well on its way to forcing the sterilization of thousands of people across America.

AAAS理事長のCharles Eliotは少なくとも、物理と化学が「破壊と死の手段」となりうることを認めていた。しかし、彼は生物学の社会への適用にには危険性はないと考えていた:「生物化学は、この点で物理や化学より大きな利点がある」[12] Eliotは優生運動として全米で数千の強制断種が進行中の1915年にこの言葉を書いた。

This is not intended to imply that scientific materialism was the only source of utopianism in America. There were elements of utopianism in religious reform movements of the 1800s and early 1900s, as well as in various expressions of secular populism. But scientific materialism was one of the most powerful sources of utopianism because it eroded previous obstacles to the spread of utopianism.


[12]Eliot, "The Fruits, Prospects and Lessons of Recent Biological Science," p. 928.
Dr. John G Westは微妙にバランスをとりつつも、"科学的唯物論"を"ユートピア的理想主義"という誤った考えの源泉だと批難する。

Prior to the rise of scientific materialism, a strong realist, anti-utopian sentiment in American political culture counterbalanced the idealism and utopianism of reformers. America's Founders, in addition to their idealism, displayed a keen realism about the imperfections of human nature. "If men were angels, no government would be necessary," James Madison wrote in The Federalist.[13] "The best Institutions may be abused by human depravity.... [T]hey may even...be made subservient to the vilest of purposes," echoed George Washington.[14]

科学的唯物論の高まりに対して、米国の政治的な文化の断固たる現実主義・反ユートピア理想主義の意見は、改革派の理想主義とユートピア的理想主義に対してカウンターバランスをとった。米国の建国者たちは理想主義とともに、人間の欠点について強い現実主義をとっていた。「人間が天使なら、政府は必要ないだろう」とJames Madisonは"Federalist"に書いた。[13] 「最良の機関は人間の堕落によって悪用される。さらには最悪の目的のために利用されるかもしれない」とGeorge Washingtonは述べた。[14]

[13]James Madison, Federalist Paper No. 51 in Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (New York: New American Library, 1961), p. 322.

[14]George Washington, "[Proposed Address to Congress]," in John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799 (Washington, D.C.: United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission), Vol. 30, pp. 301-302.
ここはまさに正しい。George Washingtonの引用も正しい。

さらに、Dr. John G Westは続ける:
The anti-utopian undercurrent in American culture continued during the 19th century when writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne satirized the overblown hopes of contemporary reformers. In his short story "Earth's Holocaust" (1844), Hawthorne described how militant do-gooders planned to cleanse the earth of imperfection by creating a giant bonfire out on the western prairies on which they could throw every conceivable cause of social evil.[15] The great conflagration burned for days and consumed everything thrown into it, but the fire still did not produce the perfect society. Hawthorne's punch line was that the reformers failed because they could not reach the ultimate cause of human misery: the human heart. Social conditions might wax and wane, but sinful human nature was unchangeable this side of heaven.

米国文化の反ユートピア理想主義の底流は、Nathaniel Hawthorneのような著作家が現代改革派の度が過ぎた希望を諷刺した19世紀には続いていた。彼の短編"Earth's Holocaust"(1844)で、社会的悪の原因と考えられるすべてを投げ込める焚火を西部大草原に発生させて、地球の欠点を浄化しようとする好戦的なお節介を描いた。[15] 大火は幾日も燃えて、投げ込まれるものすべてを焼き尽くしたが、炎は完全な社会を作れなかった。Howthorneの聞かせどころは、改革者たちが人間の惨めさの第一原因、すなわち人間の心へと到達できなかったために失敗したのだという点だった。社会状況は盛衰するが、積み深き人間の性質は変わらない。

[15]Nathaniel Hawthorne, "Earth's Holocaust," at www.eldritchpress.org/nh/holo.html

Scientific materialism tried to refute this kind of political realism. According to its adherents, human nature was not fixed; it could be remade through the methods of modern science. Men may not be angels now, but under the right biological and environmental conditioning, they might become angelic. Scientific breeding and medical treatment could usher in a new age only dreamt of by previous reformers. Scientific materialism undermined the very premises of American political realism.


One would like to believe that Americans have learned from the excesses of scientific utopianism, but current political controversies inspire no confidence in this regard. The miracle cures may be different today, but the utopian rhetoric is remarkably similar.


Seventy years ago, eugenics promised to cure America's social problems through better breeding. Today, mental-health crusaders promise to eliminate behavioral problems among America's children by screening every schoolchild for mental illness and putting millions of them on psychoactive drugs. Like the eugenics crusade of the last century, the current push to increase dramatically the number of children on psychoactive drugs reduces behavioral problems to a purely material cause. Like the eugenics crusade, it is accompanied by grandiose claims that go far beyond the actual science. Like the eugenics crusade, it is justified in humanitarian terms even while it raises serious issues about civil liberties and human dignity. How many people will be harmed before this latest crusade runs out of steam?

ここで、Dr. John G Westは意図したのかわからないが「実際の科学を大きく超えた壮大な主張」と「科学的唯物論」をリンクさせている。しかし、何を以って「実際の科学を大きく超えた壮大な主張」とするかはそもそも「科学」を以ってするしかない。

なので、「科学」ではなく「優生学とのアナロジー」によって、「精神衛生改革運動家」を批難するという論を例として挙げるDr. John G Westは、何か別なる手段を以って「実際の科学を大きく超えた壮大な主張」か否かを判断するつもりだろう。
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