昨日につづき、その課題を取り上げた本のひとつ"Lee Meadows: The Missing Link"を見ていくことにする。今回は、進化論についての4つの誤解について。

[Except from "The Missing Link: An Inquiry Approach for Teaching All Students About Evolution" by Lee Meadows]

Objection Base on Misundestandings of Evolution Itself

Evolution is hard to understand. It's complex and abstract, and it usually can't be directly observed. Resistant students can bring to the study of evolution a worldview having minor to major conflicts with the scientific worldview that modern life-forms evolved from single-celled organisms due only to natural causes. Without even trying, therefore, resistant studets may enter your classroom with fundamental misunderstandings of the evidence for or the explanation of evolution. Table 6.3 follows the same format as the previous table and helps you think about how you might develop lessons that address four common objections to evolution that are rooted in misunderstandings of the theory itself.


To effectively structure inquiry in the first lesson, ask students to compare an older, incomplete fossil series with a current one in which some of the gaps are filled in. I was first introduced to this way of thinking during a talk by Eugenie Scott, Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education (www.ncseweb.org). She helped me see that gaps will always exist in the fossil record due to its very nature, but as paleontology progresses, many of those gaps will grow smaller and some will even be filled. Showing students how gaps in different fossils series have been filled over the past decades of science should help them better understand how science works. (see the Appendix section on whale evolution for related resources). Remember, though, your goal is not to get resitant students to accept that the fossil record provides conclusive proof that life evolved.

第1の授業で探求を効果的に構築するために、生徒たちに、昔の不完全な化石系列と、昔あった隙間の幾つかが埋まった現在の化石系列を比較させる。この方法を知ったのは、National Center for Science Education代表のEugenie Scottとの会話である。彼女は私に、化石記録にはその性質上必ず隙間が存在するが、古生物学の進展に伴って、多くの隙間が小さくなって行き、、場合によっては隙間がなくなることもあることを見せてくれた。過去数十年の科学の進展により、様々な化石系列の隙間がどのように埋まってきたかを生徒たちに見せることで、科学がどう進展するのかを生徒に理解させるのを手助けできる。ただし、目的は、化石記録が生命の進化の決定的証拠を与えるものであることを抵抗生徒たちに受け入れさせることではないことを、忘れないようにしよう。

To answer the second focus question, ask students to look at statements from major scientific organizations and groups of scientists. Rather than telling students what scientists say about the bedrock nature of evolution, guide them to encounter for themselves the statements of multiple scientific groups, In this sense, you're still teaching by inquiry. You're asking students to develop a general explanation of the importance of evolution in science. You're not, however, asking them to accept evolution, just understand that scientists go about their work as if evolution is as absolute fact.


Make sure as you teach this, and any of these lessons on objections, to guide students to connect back to the understandings they developed during the lesson on natural and supernatural explanations, described in Table 6.1. Help students deepen their understanding of natural explanations by seeing that science has limits; it can't displace religion. Also, help them to deepen their understanding by seeing that one of the key limits that scientists place on themselves is restricting their explanations to natural causes, even if they personally believe in the supernatural.



posted by Kumicit at 2010/12/12 22:03 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



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