The face of homeopathy was seriously disquieted when Stuart M. Close (1860-1929), founder of the Brooklyn Hahnemann Union in 1896, teacher at the New York Homeopathic Medical College from 1909 to 1913, and editor of the Department of Homeopathic Philosophy for the Homeopathic Recorder, observed that homeopathy had "simply stood marking time", carrying the legacies bequeathed by its ancestors. ....

Admitting that Hahnemann's teachings were difficult to explain in the language of modern bacteriology. Close nonetheless felt that scholars could easily discover in what manner the psora theory had anticipated the later discoveries of Robert Koch (1843-1910) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). Unfortunately, the medical world had become so "obsessed" with bacteriology that it had "lost sight of the individual altogether", forcing therapeutic applications on patients that were "neither legitimate nor scientific". True, bacteriology was a factor in disease, but there were too many other elements that needed to be taken into consideration "Not to recognize these facts is to open the way to grave abuses and misapplications", warned Close.

Brooklyn Hahnemann Unionを1896年に設立し、1909〜1913年にはNew York Homeopathic Medical Collegeの教師をし、Department of Homeopathic Philosophy for the Homeopathic Recorderの編集者でもあったStuart M. Close(1860-1929)が、ホメオパシーは「ただ佇んで、時を刻み」始祖たちの遺産を継承しているだけだと見たとき、ホメオパシーは真剣に不安な状態にあった。...

Stuart M. CloseはHahnemannの教えが現代細菌学の言葉で説明することが困難なことを認めたうえで、マヤズム理論がどのような形でRobert Koch(1843-1910)やLouis Pasteur(1822-1895)の発見を先取りしていたかを学者たちが容易に解明できると感じていた。しかし、医学界は細菌学に執着し、「完全に個々人へを見ることなく」患者に対して「正統でも科学的でもない」治療法を強要した。実際、細菌学は病気のの一要素であるが、多くの要素を考慮する必要がある。「これらの要素を認識しないのは、濫用と誤用への扉を開くも同然だ」とCloseは警告した。[Haller & Flannery,pp.27-28]
Stuart Closeの意に反して、病原体理論の言葉でホメオパシーが説明されることはなかった。

The rush to establish medical colleges in nineteenth century America was a phenomenon common to all of the leading medical system -- regular, homeopathic, electic, and physio-medical. By the end of the nineteenth century, 162 schools of all grades and types were operating. Similarly, the closing of schools in the twentieth century became a national phenomenon as well. By 1937, only seventy-seven Class "A" schools remained in existence. In town and cities across the United States where homeopathic physicians had once practiced, homeopathy had become little more than a distant memory. Without colleges or hospitals, and with the passing of the older generation of doctors, homeopathy was relegated to an "almost forgotten and outmoded cult beyond the realm of serious consideration". Even in those schools where homeopathy lingered as a "voluntary" course, few students expressed sufficient interest to enroll.

By the end of the Second World War, the graduates of homeopathy's last remaining colleges who had served in the armed forces had learned the importance of antibiotics and were more than willing to accept the products of modern medicine.

医学校を建てるブームは、通常医療・ホメオパシー・エレクティック・フィジオメディカルなど、19世紀の米国における主要な医療システムすべてに共通することだった。19世紀の終わりには、あらゆるレベルや種類の学校が162運営されていた。同様に、20世紀における閉校もまた全米にみられるできごとだった。1937年には、クラスAの学校は72にまで減っていた。ホメオパシー治療者が活躍していた全米の町や市では、ホメオパシーは遠い日の記憶以上のものではなくなっていた。医学校や病院がなければ、古い世代の医師たちが引退していくにつれて、ホメオパシーは「真剣に考慮されるものではなく、忘れ去られた時代遅れのカルト」となっていった。ホメオパシーは自主選択科目になっていた学校でも、入学したくなるような興味を惹かれる学生はほとんどいなかった。第2次世界大戦の終わりまでには、最後まで残っていたホメオパシー医学校の卒業生で、軍に入隊した者たちは、抗生物質の重要性を学び、現代医療の産物を受け入れた。[Haller & Flannery,pp.32-33]
While academic homeopathy died an the hand of both conservative and progressive homeopaths -- each for different reasons -- classical, esoteric or Hahnemannian homeopathy continued its journey into
twentieth century. Among proponents, classical homeopathy implied allegiance to an original and unwavering set of correct principles. It seems clear, however that aside from an adherence to the theory of vitalism, few principles remained intact for very long.


Along with a number of competing alternative and complementary medical systems in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, homeopathy affirmed the existence of a "vital force" or "vital energy" that pervaded the universe and which could be drawn upon activate, provoke, redirect, or protect a diseased or disordered organism. This force or energy was more than just physical or mechanical in nature; rather it was a "spiritual", "universal intelligence", "psychic", "innate", or "auric" power which in past times had variously been called the "vis medicatrix naturae", "anima", sensitive soul", "principe vitale" or "vital principle". It was a power unbounded by the laws of physics.



競合する19〜20世紀の代替補完医療たちのように、ホメオパシーは「宇宙に広がり、病気あるいは秩序の乱れを活性化・刺激・方向転換・保護に使える」バタイルフォースあるいはバイタルエネルギーの存在を主張した。この力は自然の物理的あるいは機械論的以上のもので、むしろスピリチュアルで普遍的な知性で、サイキックで、生得的で、オーラなパワーで、かつては様々な名称で呼ばれたものである。これは物理法則によって制限されない。[Haller & Flannery,pp.35-36]

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