This flyer from the New York GOP shows a brown hand positioned across the mouth of a green-eyed, freckled white woman. I'm not sure what the image has to do with the message that Democrats will destroy "our values" or even that "family values are under attack." But it certainly radiates fear (a woman is being attacked!). The ad is in line with the vision of terrorists presented in this controversial one-minute national GOP ad.


共和党New Yorkのこのビラは、緑色の目、そばかすの白人女性の口を横切って、茶色の手が配置されている。このイメージが、「民主党が我々の価値を破壊する」とか「家族の価値が攻撃を受けている」とどう関係しているのかわからない。しかし、女性が攻撃されているという、恐怖を確かに放っている。この広告は、物議をかもした全米共和党1分間広告に登場するテロリストのビジョンに沿ったものである。

Karth Gill; The GOP Message of Fear (2006/11/06) on About.Com]
これは、2003年の心理学研究に基づくものだとKarth Gillは指摘する。それは...
Four researchers who culled through 50 years of research literature about the psychology of conservatism report that at the core of political conservatism is the resistance to change and a tolerance for inequality, and that some of the common psychological factors linked to political conservatism include:

Fear and aggression
Dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity
Uncertainty avoidance
Need for cognitive closure
Terror management

"From our perspective, these psychological factors are capable of contributing to the adoption of conservative ideological contents, either independently or in combination," the researchers wrote in an article, "Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition," recently published in the American Psychological Association's Psychological Bulletin.



「我々の観点では、これらの心理的な要因が単独あるいは組み合わせて、保守イデオロギーの主張の受入に寄与しうる。」とAmerican Psychological Association's Psychological Bulletinに掲載された「Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition (動機づけられた社会認知としての政治的保守主義)」という表題の論文に書いている。

[Kathleen Maclay: "Researchers help define what makes a political conservative" (2003/07/25) on UCBerkeley News]
One of our earliest and most widely replicated findings is that reminders of death increase nationalism and other forms of group identification, making people more accepting of those who are similar to themselves and more hostile toward those who are different. For example, in a very early study we found that reminding people of death led them to react more positively toward a person who praised America and more negatively toward a person who criticized America (Greenberg et al., 1990). Similar patterns have been found all over the world...

Many studies have shown that reminders of mortality increase one's tendency to like and support those who share one's political orientation and to dislike and even act violently toward those with different political views... existential fear increases the preference for candidates with a clear vision and a patriotic message...

[R]eminders of one's own mortality or of the 9/11 terrorist attacks led to increased support for President Bush [despite that] in the control conditions, support for Bush's Iraq policy was below the midpoint of the scale -- in other words, the majority opposed the war. However, after being reminded of their own mortality or the events of 9/11, support for Bush's Iraq policy increased above the midpoint, suggesting that the majority supported his policies.

This provides rather clear evidence that existential concerns can have direct effect on political attitudes and preferences and suggests that these forces are influencing attitudes toward our president and his policies today. It seems clear that fear and anxiety can and do play a major role in politics and are there to be exploited to influence political outcomes.

最初期の、そして最も広く再現された研究結果のひとつが、「死を想起が、ナショナリズムやその他の集団帰属性を増大させ、人々を自分と似た者たちを受け入れさせ、違っている者たちに敵対的にすること」である。たとえば、非常に初期の研究では、人々に死を思い出させると、米国を称賛する人物によりポジティブに反応し、米国を批判する人物によりネガティブになる[Greenberg et al., 1990]ことが示されている。同様のパターンは世界中に見つかる。...

多くの研究では、死を多く思い起こさせると、政治的方向性が同じ人物を好み、支持するようになり、異なる政治的見方をする人物を嫌い、暴力的に対処するようになる。... 実在する恐怖は、明確なビジョンと愛国メッセージを持つ候補者への選好度を増加させる。...



{T Pyszczynski: "What are we so afraid of? A terror management theory perspective on the politics of fear", Social Research: An International Quarterly, 71, No.4, 2004, 827-848., quoted in Karth Gill; The GOP Message of Fear]
Ever since Richard Nixon's infamous "Southern strategy" of 1968, Republicans have won power largely by convincing voters that strange and exotic others were to blame for all their ills. It's the feminists' fault, they said. Or the blacks. Or the Hispanics, the Muslims or the gays.

The names change, but the playbook remains the same, the appeal to fear unchanging: Your way of life is threatened by these people and only we, the GOP, can save you.

1968年のリチャード・ニクソンの悪名高い"Southern strategy"以来、共和党は有権者に、見慣れないエキゾチックな他者が問題の元凶だと納得させることで、力を得てきた。その他者は、フェミニストの誤りであったり、黒人だったり、ヒスパニックだったり、イスラム教徒だったり、ゲイだったりするが。

[Leonard Pitts Jr.:"Message of fear has been GOP stratagem for years" (2008/11/19) on SunJournal]


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