インテリジェントデザインの本山たるDiscovery Institute公式ブログでDr. Micahel Egnorは「Maxwellは科学に神のデザインを見た」と主張した:
James Clerk Maxwell, a devout Presbyterian, was also an intensely religious man. In a letter to the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, Maxwell explained his view of the unity of faith and science and the design he saw in the natural world:


Like Faraday, Maxwell saw God’s design everywhere in his science. He explicitly believed that God's design was evident in nature, and that it was his job as a scientist to study the design. Like Faraday, he would be appalled to see his work used to advance scientific materialism. If Maxwell lived today, Mr. Lemonick would dismiss him a creationist "propagandist."
この主張は、もちろん二番煎じである。おそらく初出は、創造科学の父たるDr. Henry M. Morrisが1982年に書いた「Bible-believing scientists of the past」である[via 創造論者の主張リスト]。あいもかわらない、「誰々は創造論者だった」という創造論者の主張のひとつ。Dr. Micahel EgnorもDiscovery Instituteもそのような創造論者なのだろう。

同じく、保守wiki(Conservapedia)の「James Maxwell」で、Maxwellが進化論に反対だった証拠となる記述を引用している。その引用にあたって:
These quotations may be offered up in support of the idea that Maxwell was opposed to the theory of evolution, which was first made available to the world at the time. It should be noted, though, that biology was neither Maxwell's area of expertise, nor was evolution developed as a full scientific field at the time these comments were made.



Maxwellは1831年生まれ、1879年死亡で、以下の引用文献Discourse on Moleculesを執筆したのは1873年。Charles Darwin:"Origin of Species"は初版1859年、第6版1872年出版。まだ放射性元素の崩壊すら見つかっていない時代である。

そんな時代に書かれた"Discourse on Molecules"には、Newtonが惑星軌道の安定性に神を見出したように、Maxwellは分子に神を見出したと思える記述が確かにある。
In the heavens we discover by their light, and by their light alone, stars so distant from each other that no material thing can ever have passed from one to another; [359] and yet this light, which is to us the sole evidence of the existence of these distant worlds, tells us also that each of them is built up of molecules of the same kinds as those which we find on earth. A molecule of hydrogen, for example, whether in Sirius or in Arcturus, executes its vibrations in precisely the same time.


Each molecule therefore throughout the universe bears impressed upon it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the Archives at Paris, or the double royal cubit of the temple of Karnac.


No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of molecules, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction.


None of the processes of Nature, since the time when Nature began, have produced the slightest difference in the properties of any molecule. We are therefore unable to ascribe either the existence of the molecules or the identity of their properties to any of the causes which we call natural.


On the other hand, the exact equality of each molecule to all others of the same kind gives it, as Sir John Herschel has well said, the essential character of a manufactured article, and precludes the idea of its being eternal and self-existent.

他方、同じ種類のすべての分子は正確に同一である。このことはSir John Herschelが良く言うように、工業生産されたものの不可欠な特徴であり、それらが永遠のものだとか、自発的に存在しているという考え方を排除する。

Thus we have been led, along a strictly scientific path, very near to the point at which Science must stop, -- not that Science is debarred from studying the internal mechanism of a molecule which she cannot take to pieces, any more than from investigating an organism which she cannot put together. But in tracing back the history of matter, Science is arrested when she assures herself, on the one hand, that the molecule has been made, and, on the other, that it has not been made by any of the processes we call natural.


Science is incompetent to reason upon the creation of matter itself out of nothing. We have reached the utmost limits of our thinking faculties when we have admitted that because matter cannot be eternal and self-existent it must have been created. [360] It is only when we contemplate, not matter in itself, but the form in which it actually exists, that our mind finds something on which it can lay hold.


That matter, as such, should have certain fundamental properties,--that it should exist in space and be capable of motion, that its motion should be persistent, and so on,--are truths which may, for anything we know, be of the kind which metaphysicians call necessary. We may use our knowledge of such truths for purposes of deduction, but we have no data for speculating as to their origin.


But that there should be exactly so much matter and no more in every molecule of hydrogen is a fact of a very different order. We have here a particular distribution of matter--a collocation--to use the expression of Dr. Chalmers, of things which we have no difficulty in imagining to have been arranged otherwise.

まさに非常に多くの物質が存在するはずであり、個々の水素分子にないことは、まったく異なった事実である。Dr. Chalmersの表現を使うための、我々が容易に異なる配置をイメージできる物の特定の分布を持っている。

The form and dimensions of the orbits of the planets, for instance, are not determined by any law of nature, but depend upon a particular collocation of matter. The same is the case with respect to the size of the earth, from which the standard of what is called the metrical system has been derived. But these astronomical and terrestrial magnitudes are far inferior in scientific importance to that most fundamental of all standards which forms the base of the molecular system. Natural causes, as we know, are at work, which tend to modify, if they do not at length destroy, all the arrangements and dimensions of the earth and the whole solar system. But though in the course of ages catastrophes have occurred and may yet occur in the heavens, though ancient systems may be dissolved and new systems evolved out of their ruins, the molecules out of which these systems are built--the foundation-stones of the material universe--remain unbroken and unworn. They continue this day as they were created--perfect in number and measure and weight; and from the ineffaceable characters impressed on them we may learn that those aspirations after accuracy in measurement, and justice in action, which we reckon among our noblest attributes as men, are ours because they are [361] essential constituents of the image of Him who in the beginning created, not only the heaven and the earth, but the materials of which heaven and earth consist.


[James Clerk Maxwell: "Discourse on Molecules" via Lewis Campbell and William Garnett: The life of James Clerk Maxwell"]

posted by Kumicit at 2007/04/24 00:58 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Creationism | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



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