2007/05/09

遺伝情報差別禁止法案が米国下院を通過

遺伝情報差別禁止法案が米国下院を通過

NewScientistの2007年5月6日付の記事「US to outlaw corporate prejudice based on genes」によれば、遺伝情報差別禁止法案が米国下院を通過した。
Soon it will be illegal to deny US citizens jobs or insurance simply because they have an inherited illness, or a genetic predisposition to a particular disease.
まもなく、遺伝病あるいは病気の遺伝的要因があるという理由で、米国市民の雇用や保険を拒否することは非合法になるだろう。

On 25 April, the House of Representatives voted 420 to 3 to pass the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). The Senate is expected to endorse the act within a few weeks, which is also supported by President Bush.
2007年4月25日に、下院は遺伝情報差別禁止法案(GINA)を420対3で可決した。上院は数週間以内に承認すると思われる。またこの法案はブッシュ大統領も支持している。
法案のステータス情報は:
110th U.S. Congress (2007-2008)
H.R. 493: Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2007


Jan 16, 2007 Introduced
Mar 29, 2007 Scheduled for Debate
Apr 25, 2007 Passed House

Sponsor: Rep. Louise Slaughter [D-NY]show cosponsors (224)

Last Action: Apr 25, 2007: On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended Agreed to by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 420 - 3 (Roll no. 261).

This bill is identical to S. 358 (Status: Scheduled for Debate).
主提案者はニューヨーク州選出の民主党議員だが、共同提案者は共和党・民主党といまぜ224という、ほぼ半数参加な法案。

上院のステータス情報は:
110th U.S. Congress (2007-2008)
S. 358: Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2007


Sponsor: Sen. Olympia Snowe [R-ME]show cosponsors (28)

Last Action: Apr 10, 2007: By Senator Kennedy from Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions filed written report. Report No. 110-48.

This bill is identical to H.R. 493 (Status: Passed House (Bipartisan support.)).
こっちは種提案者が共和党議員だが、同じく共同提案者は共和党・民主党とりまぜ28名。

さて、この遺伝情報差別禁止法案(GINA)だが、遺伝情報とみなされないのは年齢や性別で、主として遺伝情報とみなされるのは病気関連。
SEC. 201. DEFINITIONS.
(4) GENETIC INFORMATION-

(A) IN GENERAL- The term `genetic information' means, with respect to any individual, information about--

(i) such individual's genetic tests,

(ii) the genetic tests of family members of such individual, and

(iii) subject to subparagraph (D), the manifestation of a disease or disorder in family members of such individual.

(B) INCLUSION OF GENETIC SERVICES- Such term includes, with respect to any individual, any request for, or receipt of, genetic services (including genetic services received pursuant to participation in clinical research) by such individual or any family member of such individual.

(C) EXCLUSIONS- The term `genetic information' shall not include information about the sex or age of any individual.

[H.R. 493: Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2007]


雇用側に遺伝情報に基づく雇用・解雇・処遇についての差別を禁止する他、従業員から遺伝情報を収集することについても例外事項を除いて禁止。
SEC. 202. EMPLOYER PRACTICES.

(a) Discrimination Based on Genetic Information- It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer--

(1) to fail or refuse to hire, or to discharge, any employee, or otherwise to discriminate against any employee with respect to the compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment of the employee, because of genetic information with respect to the employee; or

(2) to limit, segregate, or classify the employees of the employer in any way that would deprive or tend to deprive any employee of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect the status of the employee as an employee, because of genetic information with respect to the employee.

(b) Acquisition of Genetic Information- It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to request, require, or purchase genetic information with respect to an employee or a family member of the employee except--
...
[H.R. 493: Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2007]



血液型は遺伝情報だとすると

常識的には「血液型は遺伝情報」と考えられるが、下院の法案H.R.493の本文中には、"blood type"という記述はない。

条文中には「The term `genetic information' means, with respect to any individual, information about--(i) such individual's genetic tests」とあるので、遺伝子検査(genetic tests)の結果として得られるものは遺伝情報(genetic information)と見なされると思われる。

でもって、たとえば、同様の法案について2002年9月12日に下院で開かれた公聴会で参考人John W. Rowe, M.D., (Chairman and CEO, Aetna, Inc.)の証言中に
[2002 Privacy concerns raised by the collection and use of egnetic informationby employers and insurers(2002/09/12) on CommDocs.House.gov]

For instance, your blood type is the result of genetic test. And there might be instances in which it's important for someone to have a record of your blood type, if you need an emergency transfusion. There are all kinds of genetic tests. They're not all predictive markers for the development of a dread disease.

So we just need to be a little careful about the language, as we're talking about genetic testing versus, you know, predicting disease. That's all. Just a medical point.
とあるので、血液型は遺伝情報とみなされると思われる。

とりあえず、血液型は遺伝情報とみなされると仮定すると、上院でも法案が通過し、法律が施行されれば、血液型に基づく企業内チーム編成とか、血液型に基づく人事異動は非合法とみなされそう?


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posted by Kumicit at 2007/05/09 00:04 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | News | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
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