ひきつづき、毎度おなじみMark Isaakの創造論者の主張から「小進化と大進化は別物」シリーズを紹介する。

  • CB902. 小進化と大進化は別である。
  • CB902.1. 大きな変化に対する障害がある。
  • CB902.2. 小さな変化は、大きな変化を意味しない。

Claim CB902:
Microevolution is distinct from macroevolution.

Wallace, Timothy, 2002. Five major evolutionist misconceptions about evolution. http://www.trueorigins.org/isakrbtl.asp


  1. Microevolution and macroevolution are different things, but they involve mostly the same processes. Microevolution is defined as the change of allele frequencies (that is, genetic variation due to processes such as selection, mutation, genetic drift, or even migration) within a population. There is no argument that microevolution happens (although some creationists, such as Wallace, deny that mutations happen). Macroevolution is defined as evolutionary change at the species level or higher, that is, the formation of new species, new genera, and so forth. Speciation has also been observed.

    Creationists have created another category for which they use the word "macroevolution." They have no technical definition of it, but in practice they use it to mean evolution to an extent great enough that it has not been observed yet. (Some creationists talk about macroevolution being the emergence of new features, but it is not clear what they mean by this. Taking it literally, gradually changing a feature from fish fin to tetrapod limb to bird wing would not be macroevolution, but a mole on your skin which neither of your parents have would be.) I will call this category supermacroevolution to avoid confusing it with real macroevolution.

    Speciation is distinct from microevolution in that speciation usually requires an isolating factor to keep the new species distinct. The isolating factor need not be biological; a new mountain range or the changed course of a river can qualify. Other than that, speciation requires no processes other than microevolution. Some processes such as disruptive selection (natural selection that drives two states of the same feature further apart) and polyploidy (a mutation that creates copies of the entire genome), may be involved more often in speciation, but they are not substantively different from microevolution.

    Supermacroevolution is harder to observe directly. However, there is not the slightest bit of evidence that it requires anything but microevolution. Sudden large changes probably do occur rarely, but they are not the only source of large change. There is no reason to think that small changes over time cannot add up to large changes, and every reason to believe they can. Creationists claim that microevolution and supermacroevolution are distinct, but they have never provided an iota of evidence to support their claim.

  2. There is evidence for supermacroevolution in the form of progressive changes in the fossil record and in the pattern of similarities among living things showing an absence of distinct "kinds." This evidence caused evolution in some form to be accepted even before Darwin proposed his theory.


Further Reading:
Wilkins, John, 1997. Macroevolution. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/macroevolution.html

Claim CB902.1:
Evolutionists claim that biological evolution is extrapolated from the minor variations we observe. They ignore that there are barriers to large change.

Morris, John D., 2003. Dating Niagara Falls. Impact 359 (May), p. iv.


  1. What barriers? The only barrier that anyone has ever proposed is time, and the hundreds of millions of years available for evolution show that time is not a real barrier.

  2. Evolution is not just extrapolated from observed microevolution; it is also interpolated from observed changes in the fossil record and from the pattern of observed similarities and differences between present species.

Claim CB902.2:
Creationists recognize that small microevolutionary changes occur, but small changes do not imply large changes, so the theory of macroevolution is unjustified.


  1. This claim falsely assumes that the conclusion of macroevolution is based solely on the observation of microevolution. In fact, microevolution is just one piece of the evidence that demonstrates evolution as a whole. Other evidence includes the fossil record, patterns of similarities and differences between living species, and genetic comparisons (Darwin 1872; Theobald 2004).
    この主張は、大進化の結論が小進化の観察のみから為されたと誤った仮定に上になされている。事実、小進化は進化が起きたことを示す証拠全体のひとつのピースである。化石記録や現生種の類似パターンや、現生種のの違いや、遺伝子比較など、他にも証拠はある[Darwin 1872; Theobald 2004]。

  2. Small changes do imply large changes under some common circumstances. If there is some selective pressure for the changes to go in one direction, the changes will add up. Such a condition can happen, for example, under a gradual climate change or in evolutionary arms races. Even if there is no selective pressure at all, the changes will tend to diverge further and further from the starting point. Small changes will not lead to large changes only

    • if there is stabilizing selection for organisms to remain as they are, or
    • if there is too little time for much to happen, or
    • if there are genetic mechanisms limiting change.

    Stabilizing selection occurs sometimes but is far from universal. We know that the earth, and life on it, is very old. And there is no hint of a mechanism to limit variation. Therefore, we expect large changes based on basic principles.

Theobald, Douglas, 2004. 29+ Evidences for macroevolution: The scientific case for common descent. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/comdesc/

Darwin, C. 1872. (see below)
Theobald, D. 2004. (see above)

Further Reading:
Darwin, Charles. 1872. The Origin of Species, 1st Edition. London: Senate. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html
posted by Kumicit at 2007/11/26 00:11 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Creationism | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



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