ひきつづき、毎度おなじみMark Isaakの創造論者の主張から「新しい種は観察されたことはない。」の枝番と二細胞生物を紹介する。

  • CB910.1. ミバエ実験は、ミバエだけを生み出す。
  • CB910.2. オオシモフリエダシャクは、同じ種のままである。
  • CB922. 単細胞生物と多細胞生物の中簡に二細胞生物は存在しない。

Claim CB910.1:
Fruit flies have been mutated and bred in laboratories for generations, but they are still fruit flies.

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1985. Life--How Did It Get Here? Brooklyn, NY, 104.


  1. Biological classification is hierarchical; when a new species evolves, it branches at the very lowermost level, and it remains part of all groups it is already in. Anything that evolves from a fruit fly, no matter how much it diverges, would still be classified as a fruit fly, a dipteran, an insect, an arthropod, an animal, and so forth.

  2. There are about 3,000 described species of fruit flies (family Drosophilidae; Wheeler 1987). "Still fruit flies" covers a wide range.

  3. Fruit flies do not remain the same species of fruit flies. Drosophila melanogaster populations evolved reproductive isolation as a result of contrasting microenvironments within a canyon (Korol et al. 2000). We would not expect to see much greater divergence in historical times.


  1. Korol, A. et al., 2000. Nonrandom mating in Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations derived from closely adjacent ecologically contrasting slopes at "Evolution Canyon." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 97: 12637-12642. See also Schneider, C. J., 2000. Natural selection and speciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 97: 12398-12399.
  2. Wheeler, M. R., 1987. Drosophilidae. In: Agriculture Canada, Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 2, Hull, Quebec: Canadian Government Publishing Centre. pg. 1011.

Claim CB910.2:
Peppered moths are commonly claimed as evidence of evolution, but falsely so. The moths only changed color; they remain peppered moths.

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1985. Life--How Did It Get Here? Brooklyn, NY, 105-107.


  1. Peppered moths were never claimed as evidence of a new species. They show evolutionary change as a result of selection. Creationists themselves admit such microevolution is a reality. Peppered moths show microevolution and one of its causes.

Tamzek, Nic, 2002. Icon of obfuscation: Jonathan Wells' book Icons of Evolution and why most of what it teaches about evolution is wrong. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/wells/iconob.html#moths

Claim CB922:
There are no two-celled life forms intermediate between unicellular and multicellular life, demonstrating that the intermediate stage is not viable.

Brown, Walt. 1995. In the Beginning: Compelling evidence for creation and the flood. Phoenix, AZ: Center for Scientific Creation, p. 9. http://www.creationscience.com/


  1. The intermediate stage between one-celled and multicelled life need not have been two-celled. The first requirement is for signals between cells, which is necessary if cells are to cooperate in division of labor to break down a food source. Many bacteria utilize a variety of different signals. The evolution of a signal for cooperative swarming has been observed in one bacterium (Velicer and Yu 2003).

    The transition to multicellularity has been studied in experiments with Pseudomonas fluorescens, which showed that "transitions to higher orders of complexity are readily achievable" (Rainey and Rainey 2003, 72). Choanoflagellates, which are unicellular and colonial organisms related to multicelled animals, express several proteins similar to those used in cell interactions, showing that such proteins could arise in single-celled animals and be co-opted for multicellular development (King et al. 2003).

  2. Desmidoideae is a class of conjugating green algae, phylum Gamophyta. Most desmids form pairs of cells whose cytoplasms are joined at an isthmus (Margulis and Schwartz 1982, 100). The bacterium Neisseria also tends to form two-celled arrangements. As noted above, this may not be relevant to the evolution of multicellularity.


  1. King, Nicole, Christopher T. Hittinger and Sean B. Carroll. 2003. Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science 301: 361-363.
  2. Margulis, Lynn and Karlene V. Schwartz. 1982. Five Kingdoms San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
    Rainey, Paul B. and Katrina Rainey. 2003. Evolution of cooperation and conflict in experimental bacterial populations. Nature 425: 72-74.
  3. Velicer, Gregory J. and Yuen-tsu N. Yu. 2003. Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature 425: 75-78.

Further Reading:

  1. Bonner, John Tyler. 2000. First Signals: The evolution of multicellular development. Princeton University Press.
  2. Cavalier-Smith, Tom. 2002. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 297-354. (technical)

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