2008/01/07

"Blood type and personality" に言及したことがある研究者 (4) Kosaku Yoshino

前回で、ひとまず調べ物(Blood type and personality)を終わりにしようかと思ったのだが、ちょっと気になったのがあるのでメモ。

とりあげるのは、Kosaku Yoshino(上智大学総合人間科学部社会学科 教授, 1953〜)。 専門はナショナリズム論。

前回までに取り上げた研究者たちが..

  • 絨毯爆撃でBlood typeとpersonalityに関係があるか調べる[ie. Cattell 1964]
  • Furukawa[1927, 1930]を日本の科学史・心理学史に位置付ける[ie. 溝口 1986]
  • 性格検査とBlood Typeの対応を調査してBlood typeとpersonalityの関係を否定する[ie. Rogers and Glendon, 2003]、もしくはステレオタイプとして捉える[ie. 詫摩・松井 1985]
  • Blood typeにステレオタイプを持つ人々と持たない人々の差異を調べる[ie. 坂元 1988]
という性格心理学あるいは心理学史からアプローチしていたのに対して、Yoshinoはナショナリズムの観点で、"Blood type and personality"に言及している。

Yoshino[1992]は、日本における血液型性格判断について、あくまでも個人のpersonalityとBlood typeの関係についてのもので、民族性に関するものではないが、容易に民族性に関するものへと転換しうると論じている。さらに、血液型性格判断が受け入れられた素地として、日本に意図的な遺伝子決定論否定がないことを挙げている。
As emphasis is almost always given to the relation of blood types to the personality traits of individuals, not to ethnic character. But the former can suggest the latter, as Nomi himself states: "Considering that blood type is reflected in temperament at the level of the individual, it logically follows that it has something to do with ethnic character" [1973: 53]. Suzuki is even more explicit on this point. Suzuki remarks that the Japanese character has not changed very much for the last hundred yeas because
blood type is hereditary ... (and because) the relative proportion of four blood types for an ethnic group remains almost constant. This means that ... national and ethnic characters passes on in a hereditary manner from parent to child and from child to grandchild, thereby persisting indefinitely
[Suzuki 1973: 222-3]
Nomi argues that, because the Japanese are a well-mixed ethnic group with a highly uniform distribution of blood types throughout the country and because type A has the largest representation, the A-type character may be strongly reflected in the Japanese character. Some of the characteristics associated with type A are: "Diligence, group consciousness, formalism, respect of tradition and customs, lack of individual assertion, superficial politeness and in-group exclusiveness, skill for practical improvements rather than creativity, and preference of situational ethics to ideology" (Nomi 1973: 54). Suzuki, too, suggests a relationship between blood type and national character by taking an interest in the rank ordering of types A, B, and O. (For example, AOB means that type A is most largely represented among a particular group followed by O and B) Suzuki focuses on the two common patterns, OAB and AOB: the former is represented by the Americans and the latter by Germans and the Japanese. He argues that the Japanese and the Germans have much in common; for example, they are both "introverted, concerned with details, and emotional" [Suzuki 1973: 218].

It has not been my intent to argue that most Japanese accept these ideas on blood type. However, these writings and ideas could not have emerged if there had been a conscious rejection of genetic determinism. An interest in blood type in general may be taken as one indication that genetic determinism exists among the Japanese, but this should not be conflated with what I call the "racially exclusive possession of particular cultural characteristics" which best describes the Japanese perception of their uniqueness.

[Yoshino 1992]
同様の記述がYoshino[1997, 2005]にもある。

「遺伝子決定論+民族性」などと言われれば、ちょっと嫌な妄想をかきたてられる。

今のところ、米国方面では、「Casually asking one's blood type in Japan is far more common than asking astrological sings in the U.S.」[Brown 2006]とか、「Humans seemto have strong desire to predict personality -- it is part of their future orientation. In the US astrology serves this purpose, while in Japan the ABO blood system is used.」[Fisher et al.2000]とか、占星術みたいなもんという扱いみたい。また、Anne Hartとか、Ann Louise Gittlemanとかが、日本と似たようなノリの本を出していたりする。

なので、"Blood type and personality"について"racism"と結びつけられてはいないが...



References

Ju Brown: "China, Japan, Korea Culture and Customs", Booksurge Llc, 2006. (Amazon) p.161

Kathleen M. Fisher, James H. Wandersee, David E. Moody: "Mapping Biology Knowledge", Kluwer Academic Pub, 2000 (Amazon) p.42

Kosaku Yoshino: "The discourseon blood and racial identity in contemporary Japan", in "The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan", ed Frank Dikotter, C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 1997.(Amazon) pp.208-209

Kosaku Yoshino: "The nihonjinron: thinking elites' ideas of Japanese uniquness", in "Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: RoutledgeCurzon Library of Modern Japan" (ed Michael Weiner), Routledge, 2005. (Amazon) p.258

Kosaku Yoshino: "Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary Japan -- A Sociological Enquiry", Routledge, 1992(Amazon) pp.31-32


関連エントリ

"Blood type and personality" に手を出したことがある研究者たち(0) 概況(2008/01/05)
"Blood type and personality" に手を出したことがある研究者(1) Cattell(2008/01/03)
"Blood type and personality" に手を出したことがある研究者(2) Eysenck(2008/01/04)
"Blood type and personality" に手を出したことがある研究者たち(3) 国内(2008/01/06)

posted by Kumicit at 2008/01/07 02:11 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Others | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
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