Science For All American -- Chap. 3 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES [3-38..40]

Science For All American -- Chapter 3: THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGYの残りも、とりあえず訳してしまった。


  • What are alternative ways to accomplish the same ends? What advantages and disadvantages are there to the alternatives? What trade-offs would be necessary between positive and negative side effects of each?

    同じ目的を達成するために他の選択肢は何か? その選択肢の長所と短所は? ポジティブな副作用とネガティブな副作用の間にどんなトレードオフが必然的にあるか?

  • Who are the main beneficiaries? Who will receive few or no benefits? Who will suffer as a result of the proposed new technology? How long will the benefits last? Will the technology have other applications? Whom will they benefit?

    誰がそれから恩恵を得るのか? 恩恵をほとんど得られないか、まったく得られないのは誰か? 提案された新技術の結果、誰が苦しむことになるのか?

  • What will the proposed new technology cost to build and operate? How does that compare to the cost of alternatives? Will people other than the beneficiaries have to bear the costs? Who should underwrite the development costs of a proposed new technology? How will the costs change over time? What will the social costs be?

    提案された新技術は、構築と運用にどのようなコストがかかるか? 他の選択肢のコストは同程度か? 恩恵を受ける人々以外の人々コストを負担することになるか? 提案された新技術の開発コストをだれが承諾しなければならないか? コストは時間とともにどう変わっていくのか? 社会的コストには何があるか?

  • What risks are associated with the proposed new technology? What risks are associated with not using it? Who will be in greatest danger? What risk will the technology present to other species of life and to the environment? In the worst possible case, what trouble could it cause? Who would be held responsible? How could the trouble be undone or limited?

    提案された新技術に関して、どんなリスクがあるか? それを使わないことによるリスクは何か? 誰が最も危険なのは誰か? 新技術は人間以外の生物にどのようなリスクをもたらすのか? 考えられる最悪の場合、どのような問題が起きうるのか? 誰の責任だとみなされるか? その問題の解決もしくは問題の拡大の限定は、どうすればできるか?

  • What people, materials, tools, knowledge, and know-how will be needed to build, install, and operate the proposed new technology? Are they available? If not, how will they be obtained, and from where? What energy sources will be needed for construction or manufacture, and also for operation? What resources will be needed to maintain, update, and repair the new technology?

    どんな人々や材料や道具や知識やノウハウが、提案された新技術の構築・インストール・運用に必要となるか? それらは利用可能か? 利用可能でないなら、それをどうやって、どこから調達するのか? 建設・組立や運用にどのようなエネルギー源が必要か? 新技術の保守・更新・修理にどんなリソースが必要か?

  • What will be done to dispose safely of the new technology's waste materials? As it becomes obsolete or worn out, how will it be replaced? And finally, what will become of the material of which it was made and the people whose jobs depended on it?

    新技術による廃棄物を問題なく処分するにはどうしたらよいか? 新技術が時代遅れになったり、使用に耐えなくなったりしたら、どうやって更新すればいいか? その新技術に使われていた材料や、その新技術を職にしていた人々はどうなるのか?


Individual citizens may seldom be in a position to ask or demand answers for these questions on a public level, but their knowledge of the relevance and importance of answers increases the attention given to the questions by private enterprise, interest groups, and public officials. Furthermore, individuals may ask the same questions with regard to their own use of technology—for instance, their own use of efficient household appliances, of substances that contribute to pollution, of foods and fabrics. The cumulative effect of individual decisions can have as great an impact on the large-scale use of technology as pressure on public decisions can.



Not all such questions can be answered readily. Most technological decisions have to be made on the basis of incomplete information, and political factors are likely to have as much influence as technical ones, and sometimes more. But scientists, mathematicians, and engineers have a special role in looking as far ahead and as far afield as is practical to estimate benefits, side effects, and risks. They can also assist by designing adequate detection devices and monitoring techniques, and by setting up procedures for the collection and statistical analysis of relevant data.


posted by Kumicit at 2008/04/22 00:01 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Public Documents | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



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