英国ガーディアン紙が教皇のセミナーについてのKenneth Millerの記事を掲載

英国の新聞Guardianが著名な進化生物学者であるKenneth Miller教授の署名記事「 A design for life」を2006年9月1日付けで計算した。ローマ教皇ベネディクト16世がインテリジェントデザインを受け入れるのではないかという記事を出すなど、インテリジェントデザインや創造論が英国へ侵入することへの警戒感を隠さないGuardian紙が、Kenneth Millerの署名記事の掲載という形で、旗幟を鮮明にしたというべきだろうか。

Pope Benedict should embrace evolution and call for Catholics to reject intelligent design.
Kenneth Miller

Advocates of American-style "intelligent design" (ID) have had a tough year. Their anti-evolution arguments have been soundly rejected by the scientific community, they lost spectacularly in a highly-publicised federal trial on the issue of ID in schools, and most recently the voters in Kansas rejected ID school board candidates in a statewide election. So they may surely be forgiven for hoping that Pope Benedict's discussions on evolution this month with his former students could bring some rare good news.


Indeed, Seattle's Discovery Institute, which orchestrated a prominent cardinal's pro-ID op-ed piece in the New York Times last year, is abuzz with speculation that the Catholic Church is about to take an ID-friendly position rejecting Darwinian evolution. I won't venture a prediction on what the Holy Father will ultimately decide, but it should be pointed out that the Church's real problems are not with evolution itself, but with nihilistic philosophies that enlist evolution to claim that existence is without meaning or purpose. Such claims are rightly regarded as antithetical to Christian values - but they also go well beyond evolutionary science itself.

昨年、著名な枢機卿のインテリジェントデザインを支持する署名記事をNew York Timesに載せたシアトルのDiscoery Instituteは、カトリックがダーウィンの進化論を拒絶して、インテリジェントデザインに友好的な立場をとろうとしているという推測で騒然としている。私は教皇が最終的にどんな決定をするのか予測するつもりはない。しかし、教会の問題が進化論そのものではなく、存在に意味や目的がないと主張するために進化論を持ち出す虚無主義哲学であることを指摘しなければならない。そのような主張はキリスト教の価値観と相容れないと正しく見なされる。しかし、そのような主張は進化科学自体をも超えてしまっている。

The most effective way to address these anti-religious views wouldn't be to throw the baby out with the bathwater by rejecting evolution, as ID would have us do, but to break the false connection between these philosophies and evolution itself. The notion that evolution deprives human life of meaning and robs us of our special place in the cosmos is simply not true.


What modern science actually tells us is that we live in a remarkable and dynamic universe, in which the genuine miracle is its remarkable embrace of life and change. We find ourselves in the midst of a continuing creation, in which the physical properties of matter itself drive the formation of new stars and galaxies, and make possible the emergence and evolution of life in all its splendor.


Ultimately, evolution's analysis of life and its history reinforces, rather than undermines, the lessons of Scripture, which tell us that we were formed out of the dust of the earth. We were indeed.


Just two years ago, the Vatican's International Theological Commission, under the direction of then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, pondered evolution and its implications for the faith. While their report was uncompromising on the place of God in our lives, it made a telling point with respect to the issue of evolution, one that the advocates of ID would do well to keep in mind. Citing St Thomas Aquinas, they wrote:

ちょうと2年前、当時のJoseph Ratzinger枢機卿の指示によるバチカンのInternational Theological Commissionは、進化論とその信仰に対する意味を考えた。彼らの報告は、我々の生命において神の場で妥協することないとともに、進化論の問題について効果的な主張を証明した。これは、うまくやりたいインテリジェントデザイン支持者が心に留めるべきものだ。聖トーマス・アキナスを引用して彼らはつぎのように書いた:

"But it is important to note that, according to the Catholic understanding of divine causality, true contingency in the created order is not incompatible with a purposeful divine providence. Divine causality and created causality radically differ in kind and not only in degree. Thus, even the outcome of a truly contingent natural process can nonetheless fall within God's providential plan for creation." (International Theological Commission, 2004)


Exactly right. As Aquinas had recognised nearly 800 years ago, finding a natural cause (even a "truly contingent" one such as evolution) for a phenomenon doesn't take God out of the picture. In fact, to people of faith, scientific explanations of nature only increase our admiration for His work.


The same applies to evolution. Far from reducing humanity to the random result of pointless molecular collisions, evolution unites us with every living being in a fabric of life and change in which our emergence, and the continuing creative power of our universe, is the product of the Creator's will and love. There is indeed a design to life - and the name of that design is evolution. Look deeply enough, and I am sure that the Holy Father and his students will come to the same conclusion


補足しておくと、科学の原則に方法論的自然主義がある。これは「一般に超自然とされる現象や仮説が必ずしも存在しないあるいは間違っていると主張しない。超自然が、自然現象や仮説と本質的に異ならず、あらゆる現象や仮説が同一の方法によって研究できると主張する。探求や調査のいかなる方法あるいは知識を得るいかなる方法であっても、それを自然と物理と物質的アプローチと説明に限定するものを、自然主義と呼ぶ。」 この原則に従って、科学は超越的な神の存在を肯定も否定もしない。




posted by Kumicit at 2006/09/06 00:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Vatican | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


NY Timesが教皇の週末の集まりについて、報じる

New York TimesのIan Fisherによる2006年9月2日付の記事「Professor-Turned-Pope Leads a Seminar on Evolution(教皇となった教授が進化論のセミナーをリードする)」によれば:
ROME, Sept. 1 — They meet every year, the eminent German professor and his old doctoral students, for a weekend of high-minded talk on a chosen topic. For years it was nothing more than that.

But now the professor, once called Joseph Ratzinger, has become Pope Benedict XVI. And this year, for three days beginning Friday, the topic on the table is evolution, an issue perched on the ever more contentious front between science and belief.
There is no way to know immediately, though many church experts believe that the pope has fewer problems with the science of evolution than with its use to wipe God more cleanly from a secular world. No document will be published afterward, no news conference given.

選ばれた話題についての高潔な話の週末のために、著名なドイツの教授[University of BonnおよびUniversity of Münsterなどの神学系]は、かつての博士課程の学生たちと会う。これまではそれだけのことだった。

かつてJoseph Ratzingerと呼ばれた教授は教皇ベネディクト16世となった。そして、今年は、金曜日からの3日間の話題は進化論である。科学と信仰の間でこれまでも議論のある問題をすえる。

というこで、周辺情報から、インテリジェントデザインに傾くのどうかについて、New York Timesは報じている。まずは、インテリジェントデザインに傾くこと示唆する情報として:
In his book “Truth and Tolerance” (Ignatius Press, 2004), written when he was Cardinal Ratzinger, he wrote of what he called an effort to turn evolution into a “universal philosophy” that explained all of life.

“This evolutionary ethic that inevitably takes as its key concept the model of selectivity, that is, the struggle for survival, the victory of the fittest, successful adaptation, has little comfort to offer,” he wrote. “Even when people try to make it more attractive in various ways, it ultimately remains a bloodthirsty ethic.”



some students of the pope say his doubts go deeper into the science of evolutionary theory. In his writings he has echoed the questions of anti-Darwinians about how evolution can transform one species into another.

The pope “does not accept at face value the scientific theory,” said Dominique Tassot, director of the French group, the Center for Studies and Prospectives on Science. “He wants to make people reconsider the question.”


「教皇は字義通りの科学理論を受け入れていない。教皇は人々にこの問題を再考してほしいと考えている。」と、フランスのグループCenter for Studies and Prospectives on Scienceの長であるDominique Tassotは語った。


“I suspect they will try to avoid it,” said the Rev. Joseph Fessio, an American priest and former student of the pope’s, who is taking part in the meeting, “because intelligent design has been represented either as a religion, which it is not, or as a science, which I think is indefensible.”

But Father Fessio and others say the pope, based on his statements and writings, remains deeply concerned specifically about the contention among some supporters of modern evolution that the theory refutes any role of God in creation.

この集まりに参加している、教皇のかつての学生であり、米国の聖職者であるoseph Fessio師は「インテリジェントデザインは宗教として提示されようが、科学として提示されようが、私はそれは擁護できないと思うので、私は彼らがそれを避けようとすると思う。



After John Paul died in April 2005, Benedict signaled a similar concern in his homily at the Mass in which he was formally installed as pope.

“We are not some casual and meaningless product of evolution,” he said. “Each of us is the result of a thought of God. Each of us is willed, each of us is loved, each of us is necessary.”




As might be expected from a German professor, all sides of the evolution question will get a hearing, though with an emphasis on skepticism. The seminar on Friday reportedly began with a presentation by Peter Schuster, an eminent molecular biologist, president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and a defender of evolution.

ドイツの教授[教皇]からの期待に従って、懐疑論の強調であっても、進化論についてのどの立場でも、聴きとどけられる。金曜日のセミナーは報じられたところによると、著名な分子生物学者であり、Austrian Academy of Sciencesの代表であり、進化論の擁護者であるPeter Schusterの講演で始まった。

There will be three other speakers to the study group, most notably Cardinal Christoph Schönborn of Vienna, who sparked a contentious debate last year after he wrote an Op-Ed article for The New York Times questioning evolution. The article was submitted by the same public relations firm used by the Discovery Institute.

研究グループには他に3名の講演者がいる。最も有名なのはウィーンのChristoph Schönborn枢機卿であり、彼は、昨年New York timesに進化論に疑う署名記事を書いた後、議論をまきおこした。その記事はDiscovery Instituteによって使われる広報会社から出された。

The two other speakers are Professor Robert Spaemann, a German philosopher who has criticized evolution as a full philosophical theory; and the Rev. Paul Elbrich, a Jesuit priest and scientist whose work on proteins questions whether chance alone could play the decisive role in evolution.

残りの2名は、完全な哲学理論として進化論を批判したドイツの哲学者Robert Spaemann教授と、進化において偶然だけが決定的な役割を演じたのかを問う、タンパク質についての研究をしている科学者であり、イエズス会聖職者であるPaul Elbrich師である。

なお、United Press Internationalは独自ネタがないようで、New York Timesの記事の引用という形で2006年9月2日付けで「Pope considers evolution at seminar(教皇はセミナーで進化論を考える)」という記事を配信している。
posted by Kumicit at 2006/09/05 00:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Vatican | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



バチカン観測所の施設があるアリゾナ州のローカル新聞arizona daily starのDan Sorensonによる2006年8月29日付けの記事「Observatory exit not about evolution 」によれば:
The new director of the Vatican Observatory says the retirement of his predecessor after 28 years is simply that, and has nothing to do with the outgoing executive's public statements in support of evolution.


A recent story in an English tabloid proclaimed that Coyne had been fired for his public criticism of Intelligent Design.


In an e-mail statement sent to "friends" on an Internet mailing list, Funes said the rumors that Coyne was replaced because of his stance on Intelligent Design were "absolutely false." He said Coyne requested in May that church officials in Rome replace him.


posted by Kumicit at 2006/08/31 14:46 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Vatican | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



2006年8月24日に米国ワシントンを本拠地とするCatholic News Serviceは、バチカン観測所長Coyne神父の退任について、新所長Funes神父の発言という形で、インテリジェントデザイン運動を批判する強いコメントを理由にCoyne神父が解任されたという憶測を否定した[記事]。


一方、英国のDailyMailは2006年8月23日に「Pope sacks astronomer over evolution debate(教皇は進化論争の上で天文学者をくびにした)」と報じた。

さらに、英国の新聞Guardainは2006年8月28日付けの記事「Pope prepares to embrace theory of intelligent design (教皇はインテリジェントデザイン理論を受け入れる準備をする)」で:
Philosophers, scientists and other intellectuals close to Pope Benedict will gather at his summer palace outside Rome this week for intensive discussions that could herald a fundamental shift in the Vatican's view of evolution.

There have been growing signs the Pope is considering aligning his church more closely with the theory of "intelligent design" taught in some US states.

A prominent anti-evolutionist and Roman Catholic scientist, Dominique Tassot, told the US National Catholic Reporter that this week's meeting was "to give a broader extension to the debate. Even if [the Pope] knows where he wants to go, and I believe he does, it will take time.

著名な反進化論者であり、カトリックの科学者であるDominique TassotはUS National Catholic Reporterに対して、今週の会議は論争の範囲を拡大するものだであり、教皇は自らが進みたいところを知っているがが、それには時間がかかると語った。
The Pope also raised the issue in the inaugural sermon of his pontificate, saying: "We are not the accidental product, without meaning, of evolution."




posted by Kumicit at 2006/08/30 00:00 | Comment(2) | TrackBack(0) | Vatican | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Catholic News ServiceのJohn Thavisによる2006年8月24日付けの記事
Vatican Observatory's new director discusses faith, science, planets」が、バチカン観測所長を退任するCoyne神父の後任であるJose Funes神父が「it's important to distinguish between the scientific study of natural causes and the religious beliefs of faith(自然の原因の科学的研究と信仰との区別が重要である)」という発言を報じた。

Father Funes dismissed speculation that Father Coyne had been forced out of the job because of his strong comments in support of evolution and criticism of the "intelligent design" movement.


"It's simply not true that this was the reason he left," Father Funes said. He said the appointment was a natural development after Father Coyne's long tenure and one of many personnel changes being made at the Vatican under the new pope.



He said Father Coyne would remain as head of the Vatican Observatory Foundation, which raises funds for the Vatican's Mount Graham International Observatory in Arizona. The Arizona research facility relies on donors and is always looking for more of them, Father Funes said.

Funes神父は「Coyne神父は、アリゾナにあるバチカンのMount Graham International Observatoryの資金を確保するためのバチカン観測所財団の長として留任する。アリゾナの研究施設は資金提供者に依存しており、常に新たな資金提供者をさがしている」と言った。
As for his own views on evolution, Father Funes emphasized that he was an astronomer specializing in galaxies, not a biologist, and so did not plan to make statements about Darwinism and intelligent design.


Father Funes' specific field is nearby galaxies, which he described as galaxies "only" 50 million or so light years from Earth. It's part of an exciting area of astronomy, he said.



The discoveries about the universe certainly raise the possibility of life on other planets, he said.
"Even in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, we have 100 billion stars. It's possible some stars have planets similar to Earth, and that life could develop, could evolve -- it's OK with me to use the word 'evolution,'" he said.


The idea of discovering intelligent life elsewhere in the universe does not trouble Father Funes from a faith perspective.


"I don't see that this would pose a problem to theology or to our faith, because these creatures, or beings, or 'ETs' if you want, could also be creatures of God," he said.
"It would fit perfectly, I would say, in the scheme of creation," he said.


このあたりは、インテリジェントデザイン運動の宇宙版が主張するタイプの"ファインチューニング論"と相反する主張であり、Coyne: The Dance of the Fertile Universe(肥沃な宇宙と踊る)と変わらぬ主張である。


  • バチカン観測所George V. Coyne所長(73歳)が退任するが、観測所にはとどまる
  • George V. Coyne神父は1年間のサバティカルに入る
  • George V. Coyne神父は休暇中でコメントがとれなかった


  • インテリジェントデザインな"teach controversy"にシンパシーを示し
  • (超自然の説明に持ち出さず、超越的神の存在を取り扱い対象外とする方法論的自然主義ではなく)神様は存在しないとする形而上学的自然主義を批判し
  • 反進化論を唱えず
  • 創造科学を教会は支持しない
  • 批判すべきは経済学と結合した観念論的ダーウィニズム
とあわせて見ても、Discovery InstituteのBruce Chapman所長の言うインテリジェントデザイン絡みの解任という説を裏付けるとは考えにくい。

posted by Kumicit at 2006/08/28 00:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Vatican | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする