## 2006/12/06

### "Intercessory Prayer"(6/7) -- Dr. Elisabeth Targ

Intercessory Prayer͔]ᇂ̎ÂɗLƎ咣_ȈDr. Elisabeth Targ[][California Pacific Medical CenterΖ]́A2002N718ߌ1111APortola ValleyŁA41΂̒a17OɁA]ᇂŖSȂB]ᇂƐffꂽ111̂Ƃ[Bronson 2002]B

She also put a lot of stock in her own intuition and dreams. All through her life, she had a recurring dream in which a birthday cake with 42 candles appeared (once, it was 42 birthday cakes). Targ became convinced this was a sign that she would die. At 42. Next year. 2003.

ޏ͎̒ƖMĂBlʂāAޏ͌JԂ42{̃[\NĂꂽo[Xf[P[L̖JԂBx́A܂42΂̃o[Xf[P[L̖Bޏ͂₪āA炪42΁AN2003NɎʂ̂ƂƊmM悤ɂȂB

Dr. Elisabeth Targ̒Rɑ΂|WV

Dr. Elisabeth Targ̕eDr. Russell Targ͕w҂łƂƂɁA팻ۉ[eg. R.Targ 1994,1999]łA1970Nォ1980Nɂof Uri Geller̒\͌ɎoĂƂBDr. Elisabeth Targq̍畃e̒\͎̑ΏۂƂȂĂ[Russel and Harary 1984]BGardner[2001]ɂ΁F
Elisabeth first participated in psi experiments when she was a teenager. On page ninety-six of The Mind Race (1984), a book by Russell Targ and his former psychic friend Keith Harary, Elisabeth is identified as a medical student at Stanford, and an "experienced psi-experimenter and remote viewer." In 1970 she took part in a series of what the authors call successful experiments with a psi-teaching machine. She is said to have recently obtained degrees in biology and Russian.

Elisabethŏ̒\͎󂯂̂̓eB[GCW[̍BRussell TargƂĂ̒\͊֘ÂFBłKeith HararyƂ̖{[Russel and Harary, 1984]96y[WɁAElisabethStanford̈wwłāAunB\͎҂łAu\͎҂łvƋLڂĂBElisabeth1970Nɂ͒\̓eB[O}VɂAނɂΐɎQBElisabeth͍׋ېwƃVÅwʂ擾ƌĂB

āA1980N911̑哝̑IReaganCarterɏƗ\B̕@Gardnerɂ΁F
Ms. Targ's friend Janice Boughton selected four objects to represent the four possible outcomes of the election: Carter wins, Reagan wins, Anderson wins, or none of the above. Each object, its identity unknown to Elisabeth, was put in a small wooden box. Boughton then asked Ms. Targ, "What object will I hand to you at twelve o'clock on election night?"

Elisabeth then predicted the election's outcome by remote-viewing the object she would be given. Her description of the object was white, hollow, conical, with a string attached to the cone's apex. The object that correlated with Reagan's victory was a conical shaped whistle with a string attached to one end.

Of course six weeks later Ms. Targ had to be handed the box with the whistle. Otherwise, as the book's authors put it, the initial question would have been meaningless.

Elisabeth Targ̗FlłJanice BoughtonA4̑IʁiCarter, Reagan, Anderson, ȊOjɑΉt4̕I񂾁Bǂ̑IʂƕΉtĂ邩Elisabeth Targɂ͒m炳ȂB4̕͏ȖؔɓꂽBBoughtonElisabeth TargɁuI̖12ɉNɓn낤HvƖ₤B

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6TԌɁAElisabeth Targ̓zCbX̓nȂ΂ȂȂBłȂElisabeth Targɂ₪ӖɂȂĂ܂B
ȂƂȂAMagician's SelectȊ̂AƂɂɂA\͎ĂƂ͎̂悤B

Targ refused to speculate. Her position: Use the scientific method to find out if an effect exists before trying to analyze how it works. For years, no one knew how morphine or aspirin worked - just that they were effective. The understanding came later.

Dr. Elisabeth Targ͐ۂBޏ̃|WV́Aʂ݂ȂAꂪǂ𕪐͂OɁAȊwI@ł̌ʂ邱ƁBNɂ킽AqlAXš̂킩ȂA͌B킩̂͌N̂ƂB

She presented her data dozens of times at conferences but never offered a hypothesis. She enjoyed its mystique, its unknowable nature. Even in private, she almost never let herself be drawn into these discussions. Her coauthor on the study, Fred Sicher, a psychologist, is an enthusiastic believer in the prayer effect, and he would get into long arguments with their biostatistician, Dan Moore, who took the role of skeptic. Targ never joined in. Her boyfriend, Mark Comings, was a theoretical physicist. He felt that an eight-dimensional universe could explain how a healer in Santa Fe could influence a patient in San Francisco: In our ordinary three-dimensional world, healer and patient appear far apart, but in one of the as-yet-unmeasurable extra dimensions, they'd be in the same place. Targ would shake him off - speculation wasn't for her. She had patients to care for.

wŉ\Dr. Elisabeth Targ̓f[^񎦂A񎦂邱Ƃ͂ȂBޏ͒m邱Ƃ̂łȂRƂ_鐫yłBlIɂAޏ͂قƂǂ̂悤ȋc_ȂB҂łSwFred Sicher͋F̌ʂ̔MSȐM҂łA^_̖Ƃ鐶vwDan Mooreƒɓnċc_ĂBADr. Elisabeth Targ͂̋c_ɎQƂ͂ȂBޏ̃{[CthMark Comings͗_w҂Bނ8FSanta Fe̎Î(q[[)ASan Francisco̊҂ɂɉe^邩ł邩ȂƊĂBX͒ʏ3Eł͎Î҂Ɗ҂͗Ă邪As\ȕʂ̎ł͓n_ɂ邩ȂBADr. Elisabeth TarǵA͔ޏ̎dł͂ȂƌāAނ̘_ނBޏɂ͎Âׂ҂B

eLTX̑_ւ̓

ɉuwŋN"eLTX̑_"F
eLTX̑_̌(Texas-sharpshooter fallacy)

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NX^[̍o (the clustering illusion)
NX^[̍oƂ́A_ɋNׂo܂Ƃ܂ċN ƂA_łȂƍoĂ܂ƂwBƂ΁A RCŕ\4oA̐l͋낤BA20AăRC𓊂ꍇA\4om50%̂...

Ql: Gawande[1999]

Dr. Elisabeth TargƋ҂́A"eLTX̑_"gāA_[Sicher et al.1998]Ă܂BIntroductionɂ͎̂悤ȋLqF
For these reasons, and without having conducted any previous DH studies at all, we chose to evaluate DH in a population of advanced AIDS patients with 6-month follow- up. Our initial study was a double-blind pilot study of 10 treated and 10 control subjects conducted during July 1995 through January 1996. The pilot study suggested both medical and psychological benefits of distant healing. Four of the 10 control group subjects died, with no deaths occurring in the treatment group, but the result was confounded by age (those who died were older).

As a result, in the second larger study (reported here in full) a pairmatched design was used to control for factors shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in AIDS[Saah 1994], specifically age, T cell count, and illness history. Additionally, an important intervening medical factor changed the endpoint in the study design. The pilot study was conducted before the introduction of "triple-drug therapy" (simultaneous use of a protease inhibitor and at least two antiretroviral drugs), which has been shown to have a significant effect on mortality[Hammer et al.1997]. For the replication study (July 1996 through January 1997, shortly after widespread introduction of triple-drug therapy in San Francisco), differences in mortality were not expected and different endpoints were used in the study design. Based on results from the pilot study, we hypothesized that the DH treatment would be associated with 1) improved disease progression (fewer and less severe AIDS-defining diseases [ADDs] and improved CD4+ level), 2) decreased medical utilization, and 3) improved psychological well-being. The results of this replication study are reported below.

ʂƂāA{_ŕ񍐂2̋K͂̑傫ɂāAɔNTזEaC̗Ȃǂ́AaČo߂ɈeyڂƎĂv[Saah 1994]Rg[邽߂ɁAyA}bfUCgpBɁAdvȉwvɂÃGh|CgύXB\ÍASɒʂ邱ƂĂ"3򕹗pÖ@"iveA[[jQ܂ƏȂƂ2̍RgECX̓gpj[Hammer et al.1997]̓OɎ{ꂽBČiSan Franciscoɂ3򕹗pÖ@̓1996N71997N1jɂẮAS̈Ⴂ͊҂łȂ̂ŁAfUCɂĈقȂGh|CggB\IɊÂāAXDH 1) AIDSǏ[ADDs]CD4+x̉P, 2) ×p̌, 3) SIȌN̉P ɂĊ֌WƉ𗧂ĂB̍Č̌ʂȉŕ񍐂B

1995/71996/1̌ŉQ0/10 vs ΏƌQ4/10ƂLӂȎS𓾂̂́A҃O[vɍႪA҂̎SƌāAĒ킵悤ƂƂ܂ł͂܂ƂBAŏdvȓ_"3򕹗pÖ@"̓ɂASrł͂ȂAảPɕύXƁB1996/71997/1̊Ԃ̌fUCύX̍Hammer et al.[1997]Ƃ̂ȓ_[Bronson 2002]B

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Bronson[2000]̎ނɂ΁F
Her famous study was not, as its reputation suggests, designed to measure the number of AIDS-related illnesses. Targ and Fred Sicher had targeted their study to measure mortality but were caught off-guard by triple-drug anti-retroviral therapy, which became common practice one month into the six-month trial. When biostatistician Dan Moore broke the randomization code to unblind the data, it told them nothing - since only one patient had died, the data was meaningless.

ČƂĂ̔ޏ̗LȌ́AAIDS֘AaC̐v悤ɃfUCꂽƎĂBTargFred Sicher͎S𑪒肷邱Ƃ^[QbgĂA6Ԃ̌Ԃ̍Ō1ɕy"3򕹗pÖ@"ɂЂĂ܂BvwDan MooreR[hjăAuChƂA͉ȂBl̊҂ł炸Af[^͖ӖB
...

I learned all this from Dan Moore and confirmed it with Mark Comings. Moore seemed unaware how explosive his version of the story was. "I was always troubled over the sifting it took for the data to hold together," he said. "I think Fred and Elisabeth missed the real story, which was the difference between medical science and alternative medicine. Triple-drug therapy was literally saving lives. We were only looking at secondary things."

ɂDan Moore蕷āAMark ComingsɊmFBMoore͔ނ̃Xg[[jIȌʂ炷ƋCÂĂȂ悤Bނ͌u̓f[^̂ɗvӂ邢킯ɂāAĂ܂BFredElisabeth{̃Xg[[łwƑֈÂ̈Ⴂ蓦ƎvĂ܂B"3򕹗pÖ@"͕ʂl̐~܂BX͓IȂ̂ĂłB

Dr. Elisabeth TargFred SicherDan MooréAHIVg̏Ǐquality of lifeɗLӂȌʂoȂBXgX͗ڂɏoBāACD4+łLӍȂB@Ԃƈt̐f@񐔂ɁAQ(Intercessory prayer󂯂O[v)ǍDłƂLӂȌʂoBA@Ԃ͌Nی̗LɍEAی銳҂̕@ԂX邽߁A@Ԃ͑ΏۊOƂBāAQƑΏƌQA23̃GCY֘AǏɂĔr邱Ƃɂ[Bronson 2002]F
There was only one problem. They hadn't collected this data.
They gathered the medical charts and gave them to their assistant to black out the names of the patients. This done, Targ and Sicher began poring over the charts again, noting the data they hadn't previously collected.
This isn't what science means by double-blind. The data may all be legitimate, but it's not good form. Statisticians call this the sharpshooter's fallacy

ЂƂ肪Bނ͂̂悤ȃf[^W߂ĂȂ̂B
ނ͈ÃJeW߂āAAVX^gɊҖhԂBꂪIƁATargSicher͍ĂсAɑOɏW߂ĂȂf[^ɒڂāAJeڍׂɒ׎n߂B
ʌ؂̂߂ɃAuChf[^AuChĒׂȂAĂ܂AuChƂɂȂB͂dӌ͔jĂB

āA"eLTX̑_"gďꂽSicher et al.[1998]Abstractɂ́F
We report on a double-blind randomized trial of DH in 40 patients with advanced AIDS. Subjects were pair-matched for age, CD4+ count, and number of AIDS-defining illnesses and randomly selected to either 10 weeks of DH treatment or a control group. DH treatment was performed by self-identified healers representing many different healing and spiritual traditions. Healers were located throughout the United States during the study, and subjects and healers never met. Subjects were assessed by psychometric testing and blood draw at enrollment and followed for 6 months. At 6 months, a blind medical chart review found that treatment subjects acquired significantly fewer new AIDS-defining illnesses (0.1 versus 0.6 per patient, P = 0.04), had lower illness severity (severity score 0.8 versus 2.65, P = 0.03), and required significantly fewer doctor visits (9.2 versus 13.0, P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (0.15 versus 0.6, P = 0.04), and fewer days of hospitalization (0.5 versus 3.4, P = 0.04). Treated subjects also showed significantly improved mood compared with controls (Profile of Mood States score -26 versus 14, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in CD4+ counts. These data support the possibility of a DH effect in AIDS and suggest the value of further research.
AIDSɑ΂鉓uÂ̌ʂ̉\xf[^ꂽ̂ŁAXȂ錤̉lƏĂB

200ȟ𓾂Dr. Elisabeth Targ

Ms. Targ has received $800,000 from the Department of Defense to head a four-year study of the effects of alternative healings on patients with breast cancer. The complementary healings include yoga, guided imagery, movement and art therapy, and others. "We are getting told that we can't study this," she said, "but the beauty of the scientific method is that we can. We can determine if it works-and if so, for whom and how." Ms. Targ͓҂̑֎Ẩe4Ň80hhȂ󂯂ƂB⊮Âɂ̓KC[WU@|pÖ@Ȃǂ܂ށBu͂͂łȂƌĂ܂AȊwI@͉̔\łB͂ꂪ̂AȂANɑ΂Ăǂ̂悤ɓ̂߂܂vTarg͌B ... The NIH, through its National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), has provided funding for Ms. Targ to conduct a three-year study of distant healing on 150 HIV patients. The funding for the first year alone is$243,228, with a starting date of July 1, 2000. The NCCAM has also funded a four-year project to study the effect of distant healing on persons with a brain tumor called glioblastoma. The starting date was September 18, 2000, with a first-year grant of $202,596. Both studies, Ms. Targ said, will be double blind. It looks as though Ms. Targ, over the next few years, will be receiving more than two million dollars of government funds for her research on remote healing, the cash coming from our taxes. NIH͑Sĕ⊮֎ÃZ^[(NCCAM)oRāA150lHIV҂ɑ΂鉓uÂ3Ňs邽߂Ms. TargɎ񋟂B2000N71̊JnɂāA1NڂŎ243,228hBNCCAM͐_oPƌĂ΂]ᇂɑ΂鉓uÂ4Ňɂ񋟂ĂB2000N818JnłANx202,596hBƂMs. TargɂΓdӌɂȂBNŁA200hȏ̌IMs. Targ̉uÂ̌Â͂ƂƂ͉X̐ŋłB 200hƌ΁A4NԂɂāA5̌X^bt̐lƔނ炪gpfXN@̔p𕥂AȒPɒsxBƂ͂A"eLTX̑_"gĎɂ̂Ȃ̂ō\Ƃ΍\B Dr. Elisabeth Targ̎ ADr. Elisabeth Targ͌邱ƂȂA40΂̎Ⴓł̐B 2002N329 ]ᇂƐffB 2002N5 4 Mark ComingƌB 2002N718 ]ᇂŎSBN40΁B ʑOɌ邱Ƃł̂A߂ĂԂ߂Ƃׂ낤BɂBronson[2000]͎̂悤ɏĂF On May 4, she and 150 of the Bay Area's parapsychology royalty converged in Tiburon, on waterfront land owned by the Audubon Society. She could barely walk down the aisle. She'd had a craniotomy and was missing her hair. Her wedding dress had to be refit twice because she'd lost so much weight. The left side of her face was not working properly. Yet she sat nobly and beamed. When most people get married, there's a part of the ceremony about always sticking together, for better or for worse. Targ's worse was already upon her. There would be no honeymoon. Making a lifetime commitment in the face of that tragedy left no eyes dry. 54AAudubon SocietyLEH[^[tghɂTiburonɁADr. Elisabeth TargƃxCAA̒Swꑰ150W܂Bޏ͂낤ĒʘHĂꂽBޏ͊Jp̂߂ɔĂBޏ͂܂ɂ̏d炵Ă߁A2xɂ킽ăEFfCOhX̃TCY𒲐KvBޏ̊̍͂Ƌ@\ȂȂĂBłޏ͗hɍāAPĂB̐lXƂA"a߂Ƃ₩ȂƂAƂ"ƌ낤BłTarg"a߂Ƃ"Bnl[͂Ȃ낤BߌɒʂĐUɊւ邱Ƃ́A܂Ȃɍς܂ȂB References Bronson P: "A Prayer Before Dying", Wired Dec. 2002. Gardner M: "Notes of a Fringe-Watcher -- Distant Healing and Elisabeth Targ", Skeptical Inquirer : March/April, 2001 Gawande, Atul. "The Cancer-Cluster Myth," The New Yorker, February 8, pp. 34-37, 1999. Hammer SM, Squires KE, Hughes MD, et al.: "A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinivar in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less", N Engl J. Med, 337, 725-733, 1997. Saah AJ, Hoover DR, He Y, Kingsley LA, Phair JP: "Factors influencing survival after AIDS: report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)", J. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 7, 287-295, 1994. Sicher F, Targ E, Moore D 2nd, Smith HS: "A randomized double-blind study of the effect of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS. Report of a small scale study", West J Med., 169(6): 356–363, 1998. [PubMed, PDF] Targ R: "Remote-viewing replication: evaluated by concept analysis", Journal of Parapsychology, Sept, 1994.[Rs[] Targ R: "Remote Perceptions: Out-Of-Body Experiences, Remote Viewing, And Other Natural Abilities. - Review", Journal of Parapsychology, Sept, 1999.[Rs[] Targ R and Harary K: "The Mind Race: Understanding and Using Psychic Abilities", Random House Inc,@p.96, 1984.[Amazon] ^OFF posted by Kumicit at 2006/12/06 00:01 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Prayer&Magic | | ## 2006/12/05 ### "Intercessory Prayer"(5/7) "ԑks" "Intercessory Prayer"ɗŁAԑksƎ咣̂CXGRabin Medical CenterLeonard Leibovicił[Leibovici, 2001]BĂ邱Ƃ͓vASɂȉ߂ĂoJłBǂȂɃoJƂ... ԑksHLeibovici[2001] 2000NɋFƂɂāAԂks19901996N̊҂̉񕜂𑁂߂Ǝ咣̂Leibovici[2001]łBԉςƂ킯ł͂ȂAu2000NɋFvƂɂāAu19901996N̊҂̉񕜁vƂʂƂ咣B ܂͌@Ă݂ƁF Methods All adult patients whose bloodstream infection was detected at a university hospital (Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus) in Israel during 1990-6 were included in the study. Bloodstream infection was defined as a positive blood culture (not resulting from contamination) in the presence of sepsis. 19901996NɃCXGRabin Medical CenterŌoꂽA̐l҂ΏۂƂB͔sǂ݂ƂɁǍʂł͂ȂAžt|{ƂĒB In July 2000 a random number generator (Proc Uniform, SAS, Cary, NC, USA) was used to randomise the patients into two groups. A coin was tossed to designate the intervention group. A list of the first names of the patients in the intervention group was given to a person who said a short prayer for the well being and full recovery of the group as a whole. There was no sham intervention. 2000N7ɁA(Proc Uniform, SAS, Cary, NC, USA)ɂA҂2QɕBRCgXŎQƑΏƌQɕBQ̊҂̃t@[Xgl[̃XgAQSɑ΂錒₩(well-being)ƊSȎFl̐lɓnBiΏƌQɑ΂j^F͂ȂB Three primary outcomes were compared: the number of deaths in hospital, length of stay in hospital from the day of the first positive blood culture to discharge or death, and duration of fever. Patients were defined as having fever on a specific day if one of three temperature measurements taken on that day showed a temperature of >37.5C. @ł̎SAĂމ@͎S܂ł̓AMԂ3̈ꎟʂrB13̌1ł37.5zA͔̓MƒB The 2 test was used to test for the significance of the results shown in the tables. As most of the continuous variables did not have a normal distribution, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for comparisons. \Ɏʂ̗LӐ̌؂2̌ؕ@pB唼̘AϐKzł͂Ȃ̂ŁAWilcoxonʘar̂߂ɗpB ⌟ɂĖȖ͌Ȃ̂AĂ邱ƂρB ܂A҂2QɕB̊҂́A4NO܂łɂ͎S͑މ@ĂBMԂm肵ĂBŁAu҂̎S邢͑މ@AS邢͑މ@܂ł̓AMԁvĂ܂΁A2Qɕ@̌؂ɂȂ邾BȂ킿LӍȂ΁A͂܂ƂƂʂɂȂ邾B Ƃ낪AœȂŁA1Q̊҂ЂƂ܂Ƃ߂ƂċFBāǍɁAƁAԑksintercessory prayer̎ɂȂĂ̂Leibovici[2001]͎咣ĂB āA2Qɕ܂Ƃł邱Ƃ̌؂A҂̓iaC̎ނȂǁjōsĂBꂪTable.1B Table 1. ҂̓BɋLڂȂꍇ%łBQƑΏƌQɓ̈Ⴂ͂ȂB--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Characteristic Q ΏƌQ (n=1691) (n=1702)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------䗦@@@@@@@@@@@ 46.3@@@@@@ 48.5N:l(W) 72 (18-101) 72 (18-99): Lungs 8.3 9.4 Urinary tract 31.3 28.9 Intra-abdominal 9.5 8.9 Soft tissues 7.5 7.6 Endocarditis 3.5 3.3 Neutropenic fever 3.5 2.7 Intravascular line 6.3 6.4 ̑ 7.8 9.6 s 22.3 23.2Septic shock 11.2 11.8Neutropenia 5.7 5.8@ 40.2 41.9creatinine (mg/dl) 1.2 (0.2-14.8) 1.2 (0.2-15.0)albumin (mg/dl) 3.8 (1.1- 5.1) 3.8 (1.5- 5.0)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- F́u₩Ƒ񕜁vΏۂƂĂ̂ŁAΏۊOȊȂǂɂ͉eȂƂƂ炵B āAƁF Table 2. @ƔM--------------------------------------------------------------------------------@@@@@@@@@@@ŒZ 1/4@l 1/4 Œ@@ Pl--------------------------------------------------------------------------------@: 0.01 Q 0 4 7 13 165 ΏƌQ 0 4 8 16 320--------------------------------------------------------------------------------M: 0.04 Q 0 1 2 4 49 ΏƌQ 0 1 2 5 50-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------@@@@@@@@@S@@Ґ@@S@@@Pl-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q 475 1691 28.1% ΏƌQ 514 1702 30.2% 0.4-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ƂȂĂāAS͗LӍȂA@ƔMԂ͗LӍ肾B Leibovici[2001]͎̂悤Ɍ_F Remote, retroactive intercessory prayer can improve outcomes in patients with a bloodstream infection. This intervention is cost effective, probably has no adverse effects, and should be considered for clinical practice. Further studies may determine the most effective form of this intervention and its effect in other severe conditions and may clarify its mechanism. uԑksintercessory prayeŕAǊ҂̏ǏP\łB̉́ApΌʂ悭Ap炭Ȃ̂ŁAՏÂ̎iƂčlׂ̂łBȂ錤ɂāẢ̌ʓIȌƁȀdĂȏǏւ̌ʂƁAJjY炩ɂȂ邩ȂB ͂茾āAoJłBuԑks\vƂ咣AŌ_łƂƂꎩ̂oJȂ̂łB A̎͂܂IĂȂBű݂F肪ߋ̑ksčpvƂ̂咣łȂAX͂łALeibovici[2001]̎Ɋ\BłA19901996N̊ԂRabin Medical CenteřǊ҂̂߂ɁAF܂΂BLeibovici[2001]̎œꂽF̗ʂ͍X1ȂłB̓ʂ͂邩ɏʂȋF𖳍ʂɗт΁AœꂽF͖قǏ덷͈͂Ȃ̂ɂȂBȂ킿AQΏƌQ󂯂F̗ʂɍȂȂB ̎ւ̊ȂȂAF̓ʂm肷̂́A炭lޖŖS̓B܂ł͋F̓ʂ͊młȂBBlޖŖS̓ɂȂĂA܂łɓꂽF̗ʂvłĂȂȂAǂ̂悤ɓʂm肵͂킩ȂB ܂AIɋF̓ʂmłȂ̃fUCɂȂĂBLeibovici[2001]"ɂĂ܂"ƂĂA߂"ł͕_"ɂׂ낤BłȂƁAƂČɂȂȂB ƂƂŁALeibovici[2001]ɑ΂郌X|X[Rapid Responses to: Leonard Leibovici: BMJ 2001; 323: 1450-1451]͔̗B Leibovici[2001]グoJOlshansky and Dossey[2003] āA"ł_ĂȂ"oJLeibovici[2001]NɂȂƂƁAグoJBꂪAčUniversity of Iowa HospitalsOlshanskyƕčAlternative Therapies in Health and MedicineDosseył[Olshansky and Dossey, 2003]B LeiboviciƂOlshanskyƂAȂ񂾂VAۂO... Olshansky and Dossey[2003]͎ԑksɂāÂ悤ȏ؋Ǝ咣F Models of space and time permitting bidirectional interactions between present and past exist. A current image of the topology of the space-time continuum includes wormholes that link remote regions, when space-time is pinched or folded. Some physicists hypothesise that Calabi-Yau space might allow bidirectional interactions between past and future[Dossey 1989]. These possibilities cannot be dismissed. ݂Ɖߋ̊Ԃ̑ȏݍp̋e鎞󃂃f݂BẪg|W[݂̌̃C[W2̗ꂽ_Ԃ̃[z[܂ށB̂Ƃ͂˂A܂肽܂B镨w҂Calabi-YauԂߋƖ̊Ԃ̑ȏݍpeƂ𗧂ĂĂ[Dossey 1989]B̉\͖łȂ _Ҏ1989N̘_ɏƂ͎̂シ邾낤BƂ艽ĂȂɓB ɃTCLbNDr. Wiiliam Braud̎ԑksȃl^oF William Braud, director of research at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto, California, and codirector of the Institute's William James Center for Consciousness Studies, summarised 19 studies of 233 sessions, in which individuals attempted to influence, retroactively, various living systems. Ten studies had significant results[Braud 2000]. JtHjABPalo AltoɂInstitute of Transpersonal PsychologyilSwjł̌̐ӔC҂łAWilliam James Center for Consciousness Studies̎łWilliam Broud́A233̃ZbVȂ19̌܂Ƃ߂B̌ł͎ԑksāA܂܂Ȑ튯ɉe^悤ƂlĂB10̌Lӂ[Braud 2000]B Institute of Transpersonal Psychologŷ͖͂₵ACmےƔmےw@łAFF@փXgɂ͂Ȃ[~VKB̔F胊Xg,ISB̔F胊Xg]BƂ͂AnȊŵĂ̖{nInstitute for Creation ResearchA̖{orghCȊOɁACmےicr.eduhCĂBƂƂŁAeduhCCmے邱Ƃ́AȊwIȐۏ؂̂ł͂ȂB ŁABraud[2000]̓^CphbNXɂĈȉ̂悤ȌĂ: One is to posit that it is indeed possible to change the past and not merely influence initial probabilities of occurrence. Another suggestion is that the presenting condition is complex, and that some of its synergetic, harmful components may not yet have occurred in sufficiently full form or may still be susceptible to concurrent or time-displaced mental influences. A third possibility is indicated in the Figure. The nature of a symptom complex that presents itself to a physician at time T3 may in fact be common to a family of curves (world-lines or life-lines) that describe various potential time courses of the progression of an illness. ЂƂ͏mɉe邾ł͂ȂAߋςłƒf肷Bʂ̎́AGȏԂ悵ĂāAViW[邢͗LQȍ\vf܂SɔĂȂAsđ݂鐸_IeԂ̗ꂽ_Ie󂯂₷ȂĂB3ڂ̉\}ɎBT3ɂāA҂ɎǌQ̐́AaC̐iŝ낢ȐݓIԃR[XLqJ[uiE܂͐j̃t@~[ɋʂȂ̂ȂB In the Figure, curve A represents a poor prognosis in which health declines progressively, eventually resulting in the death of the patient. Curve B indicates a less severe illness time course. Curve C indicates a gradual, incomplete recovery. Curve D depicts a relatively rapid and complete recovery. }ŁAJ[uA͌NԂɈȂ\\ĂBčŌɂ͊҂̎ŏIBJ[uB́A͂܂ȕaČoߌoHBJ[uĆAiKIŕsSȉ񕜂BJ[uD́ArI}ŊSȉ񕜂\킷B Note that the presenting condition at time T3 could be on any of the 4 curves and, based only on information available at time T3, one cannot know which curve actually may be in effect. It is possible that healing intentions generated at time T3 might retroactively influence which of a family of possible curves is actualized at time T2—the common seed moment for several possible progression/outcome curves. T3Œ悵ẮAT3œ\ȏł́A4̂ǂł肤Bǂ̃J[uɂ̂͂킩ȂBT3̎_ŐꂽÌʂ́AݓI4̃J[ûЂƂT2_֑ksĉeȂB ȂƁAߋ։eyڂAݎ_ł͂̌ʂȂ̂ƌBؕs\ƂAȂ̂Ƃ... ꂾƁAĂقڊmɁAԑksIntercessory PrayerȂ񂩎A؂łȂB ɁA Schmidt[1982] did foundational work about retroactive intentions with electronic generators of random numbers and with inherently random processes such as radioactive decay. Human intent influenced prerecorded events at the quantum level in the present if the recording of the quantum events had not yet been seen, even though the events were in the past and had happened[Weber 1986]. Schmidt's experiments, widely regarded among the most precise ever in human intentionality, evoke praise, even from sceptics[Stapp 2001]. Schmidt[1982]̓Rs[^ɂ闐ː̂̕悤ȃ_ȉߒgĎԑksȈӐ}ɂĊbIȌsBL^ꂽʎqCxgNĂȂ΁AƂꂪߋɊɋNĂCxgłĂAʎqx̊ɋL^ꂽCxgɌ݂̐lԂ̈Ӑ}e[Weber 1986]BSchmidt̎́AlԂ̈Ӑ}ɂĂƂmłƍLF߂A^_҂܎^Ă[Stapp 2001] Stapp[2001]ICł̋LɂSchmidtւ̌y͂ȂBāAHelmut SchmidtƂ͒Sw҂łA1970NォɈ]ĂF Skepdic: ad hoc hypothesis(̏ꂵ̂̉) }[EK[hi[́Ȁꂵ̂̉΂̂ɔWĂ܂ƂA^w҃w[gEV~bg̗ďqׂĂBV~bǵAdCVbN悤ɂ̒ɁASLu߂BSLuowԂƂłȂASLu̓VbN󂯂A܂ŎɃVbN悤ȂƂ͊mIȊҒlȏɂ͋NȂƍlBASLu͊Ғl葽dCVbNBg̓SLuȂ̂ŁAԂ񎄂̔O͂uɉêIh V~bg͂_ÂBiK[hi[Ap. 59j Ƃ Skepdic: The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) In the 1960s, physicist and parapsychologist Helmut Schmidt started using random event generators to do PK experiments. According to Dean Radin (1997), over the years Schmidt provided solid scientific support for the PK hypothesis and the people involved in the PEAR group replicated Schmidt's work in 258 experimental studies and 127 control studies. C.E.M. Hansel, however, claims that regarding all the studies done after 1969 and before 1987 that attempted to replicate Schmidtfs work: gThe main fact that emerges from this data is that 71 experiments gave a result supporting Schmidtfs findings and 261 experiments failed to do soh (Hansel 1989: 185). 1960Nɂ́Aw҂ł蒴Sw҂łHelmut Schmidt́APK̂߂ɗgn߂܂BDean Radin[1997]ɂ΁ANɂ킽āASchmidt͋ȉȊwIȎxPKɗ^BāAPEARO[v֌W҂Schmidť̍Č127̑ΏƎsBAC.E.M. Hansel[1989]19601987NɂSchmidťČ悤ƂAu71̎Schmidt̔xA261͎̎svƎ咣B ȂāAJjYsł͂邪Aԑks"intercessory prayer"̌ʂԐړIɎx̂Ǝ咣BTCLbN҂_ƂƂA܂kƂvȂ咣B ꊅBishop and Stenger[2004] ̔n҂ǂ!!Leibovici[2001]Olshansky and Dossey[2003]ꊅ̂AčUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterBishopƕčUniversity of ColoradoStengerł[Bishop and Stenger, 2004]Bv_: Summary points: • Claims have been made that prayer can act distant in space and time, including retroactively iLeibovici̎咣́AF肪𒴂AߋɂksƂ̂j • Very few studies have been done on retroactive prayer iksF̌͂قƂǂȂĂȂj • Studies on the effects of distant prayer are poorly designed and have weak results iԓIɗꂽF̌ʂ̌̃fUC͕nŁAアʂĂȂj • Current scientific theory does not support effectual benefit of prayer distant in space or time i𒴂F̌ʂẢ݂Ȋw_͎xȂj āABishop and Stinger[2004]͎3_wEF Health research using spirituality occurs in two types. One type of research examines the effects that religious or spiritual beliefs and practices have on mental and physical health through psychological, social, and physiological mechanisms that are well established in the traditional social, behavioural, and medical sciences[Koenig et al. 2003; Mueller et al. 2001; George et al. 2002]. In this research, no appeal to extraordinary mechanisms is made. We need apply only ordinary psychological, social, or physiological phenomena. Health benefits might reasonably result from the comforting belief that a spiritual world exists, even if it does not. Psychological and behavioural factors have well established health effects, so it is not a far step to accept that spiritual belief, or perhaps non-belief, also has health consequences. _(XsA)gÌɂ́A2̃^CvBЂƂ͏@I邢̓XsAȐMƎHAIȎЉȊwAsȊwAwɂĊmꂽSIAЉIAIJjY[Koenig et al. 2003; Mueller et al. 2001; George et al. 2002]ʂāA^ѓ̂̌Nɉe邱Ƃ𒲂ׂ̂B̃^Cv̌ł́AȃJjYɂ͑iȂBX͒ʏ̐SwIAЉwI邢͐wIۂ݂̂KpKvBۂ͂ł͂ȂɂĂAXsAȐE݂ƂԂ߂̐MANɗLvȌʂIɂ炷ȂBSIȗvfэsIvfNɌʂ邱Ƃ͊ɊmĂB]āAXsAȐM邱ƁA邢͂ȂƂANɉe邱ƂF߂̂͂ނƂł͂ȂB Until recently, the scientific community has been sceptical that religious and spiritual factors can be quantified. Lately, however, methods have been developed to assess religiosity and spiritual beliefs. Some doubt remains on whether the methods are adequate or whether what science means by religious or spiritual beliefs is the same as what religious or spiritual traditions mean by these beliefs[Bishop 2003]. Yet, religiosity and spirituality can be reasonably related to health outcomes similar to other psychosocial factors. Within a scientific framework, the benefits of prayer might also be attributed to these factors. ŋ߂܂ł́A@IŐ_Iȗv̒ʉɂāAȊwE͉^IBAŋ߁A@I邢̓XsAȐM]@JꂽB@K؂ł邩A邢@I邢̓XsAȐMɂȊwӖ̂ƁA@I邢̓XsAȐM̓Ӗ̂Ȃ̂ɂāA̋^͎c[Bishop 2003]BA@I邢̓XsAȐM͍IɁA̐SIvfƓNԂƊ֌WĂBȊw̃t[[N̒ŁAF̌p̗͂vɂ̂ƍl邩ȂB The claims put forward by Olshansky and Dossey are quite different from health outcomes research, which might reasonably be related to religion or spirituality. They argue that prayer might be used instrumentally to bring about desired effects in the world at a distance of space and time. The studies they cite have very little or nothing to do with established psychological, social, or behavioural pathways. Firstly, the findings from human studies which Olshansky and Dossey cite are hardly robust; in places, they are clinically insignificant in terms of effect size and not uncommonly steeped in controversy. Secondly, they call on theoretical mechanisms that have, at best, a questionable connection to medicine. Without plausible mechanism, abundant data with strong significance is necessary. That evidence does not exist. Olshansky and Dossey[2003]ɂ咣́ǍNԂւ̉ěƂ͂܂ႤBāA͏@邢̓XsAȂ̂Ƙ_IɊ֘A邩ȂBނ́AF肪ԂƎ̊ԗꂽƂɐEɖ]܂e炷iƂĎg邩ȂƎ咣Bނ炪ṕAmꂽSwЉwsȊwƂ͉̊֌WȂBAOlshansky and Dossey[2003]plԌɂ锭́ASȂ̂ł͂ȂBނeffect size͗ՏIɎɑȂ̂łAc_̘׏ɂ̂ĂȂBɁAނ́AAÂƂ̊֘A̋^킵_IJjYbƂĂBƂ炵JjYȂȂALӐ̃f[^KvB̂悤ȏ؋݂͑ĂȂB mꂽ_ɔ咣ȂÂ̂˂邾̏؋KvƂ̂ABishop and Stenger̎咣łB͂܂B Olshansky and Dossey[2003]̘_́Aォ牽Ƃł悤William Braud̘_ƁA1970Nォad hocȘ_ӂ܂킷Helmut Schmidt̘_̂悤Ȃ₵́B̂ƂŁALeibovici[2001]̎ԑksIntercessory Prayeȑ؋ƂȂǂ܂ɕsBƂ_OB References Bishop, J.P. and Stenger, V.J.: "Retroactive prayer: lots of history, not much mystery, and no science", BMJ, 329:1444-1446, 2004. Bishop JP: "Prayer, science and the moral life of medicine." Arch Intern Med 163: 1405-8, 2003. Braud W.: "Wellness implications of retroactive intentional influence: exploring an outrageous hypothesis." Altern Ther Health Med 6: 37-48, 2000. Dossey L.: "The immortal, one mind: Schrodinger, Godel, Einstein. In: Recovering the soul." New York: Bantam, 123-52, 1989. George LK, Ellison CG, Larson DB: "Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health." Psychol Inq 13: 190-200, 2002 Hansel, C.E.M.: "The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited." Prometheus Books, 1989. Koenig HG, McCullough M, Larson D: "Handbook of religion and health" New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Leibovici, L.: "Beyond Science? Effects of remote, retroactive intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: randomised controlled trial", BMJ, 323: 1450-1451, 2001. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA: "Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice" Mayo Clin Proc 76: 1225-35, 2001 Olshansky, B. and Dossey, L.:"History and mystery: Retroactive prayer: a preposterous hypothesis?", BMJ, 327:1465-1468, 2003. Radin, D.: "The Conscious Universe - The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena." HarperCollins, 1997. Stapp H.: "Harnessing science and religion: Implications of the new scientific conception of human beings." Res News Opportunities Sci Theology1: 8, 2001 [online] Schmidt H.: "Collapse of the state vector and psychokinetic effect." Found Phys 12: 565-81, 1982. [Abstract,Rs[] Weber R.: "Dialogues with scientists and sages.", New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 41, 1986. ^OFF posted by Kumicit at 2006/12/05 00:01 | Comment(2) | TrackBack(0) | Prayer&Magic | | ## 2006/12/04 ### "Intercessory Prayer"(4/7) Mastersɂ܂Ƃ "intercessory prayer"ɂāADr. Terence Hines["Pseudoscience and the Paranormal" 2nd edition, pp.378-381, 2003]ȍ~̓ɂāAMasters et al.[2006]܂Ƃ߂Ă̂ŁAЉB ==> Kevin S. Masters, Glen I. Spielmans, and Jason T. Goodson: "Are There Demonstrable Effects of Distant Intercessory Prayer? A Meta-Analytic Review", Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 21-26, 2006.[Abstract,PDF] ȂOMasters et al.[2006]s"^AiVX"ɂĒׂĂB ^AiVX ^AiVXɂẮAQnwЉw ؔɐLvwKm[gV[Yu^AiVX@meta-analysisvڂBƌĂ: meta-analysis(^AiVX): Glass[1976]tŁCu̓ƌ̕]śvłB ̌ʂCf[^ł͂ȂϒlW΍ȂǂCv񓝌vʂo effect size : QƑΏƌQ̍Ŵł[Cohen, 1977] ႦΒj effect size قȂȂCgender moderator łƔFB X̌茋ʂPlZlɕϊ p(i) ==> z(i) Zlv̌(k)̕ŊZ_{overall}͐Kzɏ] Z_{overall} = _{i=1}^{k} ( Z(i)/k) Z_{overall}瓝ꂽP_{overall}߂ Z_{overall} ==> P_{overall} effect size r𐄒肷 r = Z_{overall}/N N͊eɂTvTCY̍v file draw problem reporting bias Ƃ publication bias ƌĂ΂CuLӂȌʂȂꍇɂ͌\ȂvƂlȂĂ͂ȂȂB Ƃ肠u^AiVX@meta-analysisvƓǂ񂾂ƂɂāAMasters et al.[2006]ɂǂ낤B Masters et al.[2006]̊Tv ̊Tv́F Background: The use of alternative treatments for illness is common in the United States. Practitioners of these interventions find them compatible with personal philosophies. Consequently, distant intercessory prayer (IP) for healing is one of the most commonly practiced alternative interventions and has recently become the topic of scientific scrutiny. wiFaC̑֎Â̎gṕAAJOňʓIłB̊̎{҂́Al̓Nwƌ݊Ƃ킩ĂB]āA߂鉓Intercessory PrayeriIPj́AłʂɎnɌô֓IÖ@1łāAŋ߉ȊwIȏڍׂȒ̘bɂȂB Purpose: This study was designed to provide a current meta-analytic review of the effects of IP and to assess the impact of potential moderator variables. ړIF̌́AIP̉eɂČ݂̃^AiVXsāAݓImoderator̉e]B Methods: A random effects model was adopted. Outcomes across dependent measures within each study were pooled to arrive at one omnibus effect size. These were combined to generate the overall effect size. A test of homogeneity and examination of several potential moderator variables was conducted. @F_Ȍʃf̗pBЂƂ̑IȌʂ邽߂ɁAX̌ƂɓƗv@ɂ錋ʂW߂B́AS̓IȌʂ̑傫]邽߂ɌBώ̃eXgƂ̐ݓImoderator̒sB Results: Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis yielding an overall effect size of g = .100 that did not differ from zero. When one controversial study was removed, the effect size reduced to g = .012. No moderator variables significantly influenced results. ʁF^AiVXɎg14̌́AS̓IȌʂ g = .100łA[ƈȂB̑1[\tWirth̊ւCha&Wirth[2001]O΁Ag=0.012ƂȂBȂmoderatorLӂɌʂɉeȂB Conclusions: There is no scientifically discernable effect for IP as assessed in controlled studies. Given that the IP literature lacks a theoretical or theological base and has failed to produce significant findings in controlled trials, we recommend that further resources not be allocated to this line of research. _FǗꂽ̕]ɂAȊwIɎʂłʂIPɂ͂ȂBIP̕_I邢͐_wIb@ĂāAǗꂽŗLӂȌʂĂȂ̂ŁAX͂̐̌Ɏ肠ĂȂƂ𐄏B āǍʂΏۂƂ郁^AiVX̂ŁAR̂Ƃ̂ȂAǂ̌I邩ƂȂBMasters[2006]͂̂悤ɂ邱ƂŁACӐȂƂF In order to locate all relevant studies, PsycInfo and Medline databases were searched using the terms gintercessory prayerh and articles published prior to August, 2005 were eligible for inclusion. References in relevant review articles [Roberts et al.,2003; Astin et al.,2000; Ernst, 2003; Townsend 2002] were also searched as were reference lists from articles included in the meta-analysis. To meet inclusion criteria studies must have: a) used IP as an intervention to treat any type of medical or mental health problem; b) provided data that allowed for calculation of an effect size; c) compared IP to a control group; and, d) blinded participants as to their experimental condition. It was not required that participants be unaware of their participation in a study . This strategy yielded a total of 15 studies (noted by an asterisk in the reference list). One study was excluded because it examined the impact of gretroactiveh intercessory prayer on patients with a prior blood infection[Leibovici, 2001]. The outcomes of participants had been established prior to the implementation of IP; consequently, we did not understand how this could be considered a prayer intervention and hence decided that it did not merit inclusion. All other IP intervention studies were included. ׂĂ̊֘A錤ʂ^AiVX̑ΏۂƂ邽߂ɁAPsycInfo and Medline databasesgāAL[[h"intercessory prayer"ŁA2005N8܂łɌ\ꂽ_B֘A郌r[_̎QlāA^AiVXɉB^AiVXɉ (a) "intercessory prayer"Â邢̓^wXɎgA(b) ʂvZł鐔fڂĂāA(c) QƑΏƌQrĂāA(d) ӌɂȂĂ邱ƁBQ҂ɎQƂm炳ȂƂ͏ƂȂB̋Kɍv̂15B̂1[Leibovici, 2001]́Aߋɑk"intercessory prayer"ȑǑtǊ҂ւ̉e𒲂ׂĂ̂ŏOBQ҂̌ʂ́A"intercessory prayer"{OɊm肳ꂽB]āAX͂ǂ"intercessory prayer"̌ʂƍlׂłȂ̂ŁAOBȊÔׂĂ"intercessory prayer"ɂ鎡Ìʂ̌ΏۂƂB דIuɉߋ̌_Îł͂ȂƂAĂBȂAOꂽLeibovici[2001]́Aߋ̏Ǐ󂪗ǂȂ悤ɍFƂAԋt]"intercessory prayer"łBɑ΂ẮAResponseĂBuFāȀǏPvƂ"intercessory prayer"Ƃ͈قȂAÔׂiAɂĎグjB āAɃ^AiVX̕@F Outcomes across all dependent variables were pooled within studies to provide one omnibus effect size for each study. Effect sizes across studies were weighted by their inverse variance in order to provide an overall effect size estimate that most accurately represented the true population effect size [Hedges and Olkin, 1985]. Level and detail of data reporting varied widely across primary studies. Consequently, effect sizes were computed from means and standard deviations when possible. In their absence, effect sizes were calculated from t-tests and F-tests. Effect sizes from dichotomous outcome measures were computed using procedures described in Hasselblad & Hedges[1995], who provided a method for transforming odds ratios from dichotomous data into effect sizes by using the following formula: d = (logOR* 3)/ After all effect sizes were calculated, they were converted to Hedgesf g, which corrects for a small bias in Cohenfs d [Hedges and Olkin, 1985]. All effect sizes were calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software [Biostat 2002]. eƂɂЂƂ̓effect sizeZo邽߂ɁAe̓Ɨϐ̌ʂЂƂɏW߂BŜeffect sizemɐ^̃f[^effect size[Hedges and Olkin, 1985]ɂȂ悤ɁǍeffect size𕪎ŰtŏdݕtBf[^񍐂̃xƏڍׂ́AꎟƂɑ傫ĂB]āAeffect size͉\Ȃ畽ςƕW΍vZBꂪȂƂ́Aeffect sizetF-肩vZBʂeffect sizeHasselblad and Hedges[1995]ŋLq菇gČvZBāAȉ̌ŁAm䗦񕪂f[^effect sizeɕωF d =ilogOR*3j/ Ŝeffect sizevZƁACohend[Hedges and Olkin, 1985]ɂ鏬ȕΌCHedgegɕϊBŜeffect sizéAComprehensive Meta-Analysis\tgEFA[Biostat 2002]gpČvZB ܂łReferences Astin JA, Harkness E, Ernst E.: "The efficacy of gdistant healingh: a systematic review of randomized trials." Annals of Internal Medicine 132:903-910, 2000. Biostat: Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.2, Englewood, NJ, Biostat, 2002. Cohen, J. "Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.", New York: Academic Press, 1977. Ernst E.: "Distant healing -- an gupdateh of a systematic review." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 115:241-245, 2003. Glass, G. V.: "Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research.", Educational Researcher, 10, 3-8, 1976. Hasselblad V, Hedges LV.: "Meta-analysis of screening and diagnostic tests." Psychological Bulletin, 17:167-178, 1995. Hedges LV, Olkin, I.: Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1985. Leibovici L.: "Effects of remote, retroactive intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: randomized controlled trial" British Medical Journal 323:1450-1451, 2001 Roberts L, Ahmed I, Hall S.: "Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health" [online]. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Reviews 2000. Amended October, Article No. CD000368, 2003. Tessman, I. and Tessman, J.: "Efficacy of prayer: A critical examination of claims.", Skeptical Inquirer 24(2): 31-, 2000. Townsend M, Kladder V, Ayele H, Mulligan T.: "Systematic review of clinical trials examining the effects of religion on health." Southern Medical Journal 95:1429-1434, 2002. ʂ... Masters et al.[2006]́A"intercessory prayer"̌ʂꗗ\ɂ܂Ƃ߂ĂBɂ́Adӌ̎菇ɖ肠Byrd[1988]AقƂǗLӂł͂ȂHarris et al, [1999]͂̂ƁA\t܂ތCha&Wirth[2001]i{ Cha et al., 2001ƕ\LׂAłMasters et al.,2006̕\Lɏ]j܂܂ĂB\"g"傫قǌʂłB܂AҐNȂ̂܂܂ĂB Table 1. IP Studies Included in Meta-Analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------------IntercessorsfStudy Prayer Type Faith Condition g*1 N------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aviles et al., 2001 Unknown Unknown CCU*2 .068 762Byrd, 1988 Directive Christian CCU .296 393Cha & Wirth, 2001 Directive Christian Fertility Clin.*3 .576 167Collipp, 1969 *4 Directive Christian Leukemia .803 16Harris et al, 1999 Both*5 Christian CCU .097 990Joyce & Welldon, 1965 Nondirective Christian Various .163 32Krucoff et al., 2005 Unspecified Variety*6 CAD*7 -.018 748Mathai & Bourne, 2004 Unspecified Unknown MH*8 -.274 336Matthews et al., 2000 Directive Christian RA*9 -.001 40Matthews et al., 2001 Directive Christian Kidney Dia*10 -.075 94OfLaoire et al., 1996 Both Unknown Healthy -.098 277Palmer et al., 2004 Unknown Christian Healthy -.015 68Tloczynski & Fritsch, 2002 Directive Unknown Healthy .590 8Walker et al. 1996 Nondirective Christian/ Alcohol Tx. .425 34 Jewish------------------------------------------------------------------------------*1 = positive value for g represents a positive effect for intercessory prayer *2 CCU = coronary care unit*3 Fertility Clin. = patients at a fertility clinic prayed for pregnancy*4 In this small N study two patients, both in the control group, had a different and more deadly form of leukemia than the other patients. They were excluded from the analysis*5 Both = prayers were both directive and nondirective*6 Variety = Christian, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist*7 CAD =coronary artery disease*8 MH = various mental health problems*9 RA = rheumatoid arthritis*10 Kidney Dia. = patients on kidney dialysis  gl0.1傫Ȃ̂̂AByrd[1988]͌菇œdӌjꂨ[Tessman and Tessman, 2000]ACha & Wirth[2001]͍\tłBcCollipp[1969]Tloczynski & Fritsch[2002]Walker et al.[1996]͊ҐȂƂ́B ܂Ƃ߂đŜŌ̂̕\F Table 2 Effects of IP Summarized Across Studies------------------------------------------------------------------------------Condition N of Comp.*1 g*2 Z p------------------------------------------------------------------------------Overall 14 .100 1.35 .18Patient 11 .169 1.93 .05Healthy 3 -.061 .58 .57Patient (without Cha & Wirth, 2001) 10 .066 .72 .47Overall (without Cha & Wirth, 2001) 13 .012 .17 .87------------------------------------------------------------------------------*1 = number of comparisons*2 = positive value for g represents a positive effect for IP \tCha & Wirth[2001]O΁ALӂPlł͂ȂȂA14̌SȂĂ݂΁A"intercessory prayer"̌ʂ͌ȂƂ̂_B ܂łƈfUCȂ̂ł΁A͂AlɌӋ͂Ȃ낤B ^AiVXΏۂReferences Aviles JM, Whelan SE, Hernke DA, Williams BA, Kenny KE, OfFallon WM.: "Intercessory prayer and cardiovascular disease progression in a coronary care unit population: a randomized controlled trial." Mayo Clinical Proceedings, 76:1192-1198, 2001 Byrd RC.: "Positive therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer in a coronary care unit population." Southern Medical Journal, 81:826-829, 1988. Cha KY, Wirth DP.: "Does prayer influence the success of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer?" The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 46, 781-787, 2001 Collipp PJ.: "The efficacy of prayer: a triple-blind study." Medical Times, 97:201-204, 1969. Harris WS, Gowda M, Kolb JW, Strychacz CP, Vacek JL, Jones PG, et al.: "A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to the coronary care unit." Archives of Internal Medicine, 159:2273-2278, 1999. Joyce CRB, Welldon RMC.: "The objective efficacy of prayer: a double-blind clinical trial." Journal of Chronic Diseases, 18:367-377, 1965. Krucoff MW, Crater SW, Gallup D, Blankenship JC, Cuffe M, Guarneri M, et al. Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualisation of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomized study. The Lancet, 366:211-217, 2005. Mathai J, Bourne A.: "Pilot study investigating the effect of intercessory prayer in the treatment of child psychiatric disorders." Australian Psychiatry, 12:386-389, 2004. Matthews DA, Marlowe SM, MacNutt FS.: "Effects of intercessory prayer on patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Southern Medical Journal, 93:1177-1186, 2000. Matthews WJ, Conti JM, Sireci SG.: "The effects of intercessory prayer, positive visualization, and expectancy on the well-being of kidney dialysis patients." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 7:42-52, 2001 OfLaoire S.: "An experimental study of the effects of distant intercessory prayer on selfesteem, anxiety, and depression." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3:38-53, 1996 Palmer RF, Katerndahl D, Morgan-Kidd J.: "A randomized trial of the effects of remote intercessory prayer: interactions with personal beliefs on problem-specific outcomes and functional status." The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10:438-448, 2004. Tloczynski J, Fritzsch S.: "Intercessory prayer in psychological well-being: using a multiplebaseline, across-subjects design." Psychological Reports, 91:731-741, 2002. Walker SR, Tonigan JS, Miller WR, Comer S, Kalich L.: "Intercessory prayer in the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence: a pilot investigation." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3:79-87, 1996. ^OFF posted by Kumicit at 2006/12/04 00:01 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Prayer&Magic | | ## 2006/12/03 ### "Intercessory Prayer"(3/7) -- \to lʂ̐ľN̂߂̋F΁A̕ʂ̐ľNɉeyڂ낤H@"intercessory prayer"ɂāADr. Terence Hines["Pseudoscience and the Paranormal" 2nd edition, pp.378-381, 2003]Ȍɂ܂Ƃ߂ĂBHinesmƂ肠l^̂ЂƂA2001NThe Columbia UniversitẙՌXL_łB́AUniversity of California-IrvineObstetrics & Gynecology̋łFlamm[2002,2004a,2004b]ɂ\ꂽ̂BFlammɂ... ̌Ƃ́AsDÂ̂߂̐lH̐mグ"Intercessory Prayer"ɂĂ̂̂[Cha, 2001]B_̒҂... āAlH󐸂ɂĎ̂悤Ȍʂ𓾂Ǝ咣F The IP group had a higher pregnancy rate as compared to the no-IP rate (50% vs. 26%, P=.0013). The IP group showed a higher implantation rate (16.3% vs. 8%, P=.0005). FꂽO[v̔DṔAFȂO[v(50% 26% P= 0.0013)BFꂽO[v(16.3% 8% P=0.0005)B A statistically significant difference was observed for the effect of IP on the outcome of IVF-ET, though the data should be interpreted as preliminary. IȌʂł͂邪AlȞʂɂċF̌ʂɁAvIɗLӂȈႢ邱Ƃ킩B MȂA܂ʂłB... Cha et al.[2001]̖_ Flamm[2002]͂܂ȉ̖wE: • Cha et al.[2001]ɂ219̊҂̂20"fragmentary e-mail transmission"ɂ鏜OꂽƂBAǂQN̂LڂȂB==> f[^₂̋^B • Cha et al.[2001]"we set out with the expectation that we would show no benefit of intercessory prayer."iʂȂƂƔƊ҂Ďn߂jƂ邪ADaniel Wirth͒팻ۉłA팻ۂ咣钘삪[Wirth and Cram ,1994; Wirth and Cram, 1993; Wirth and Marrett, 1994; Wirth 1995; Wirth et al., 1996; Wirth et al., 1997; Wirth and Cram, 1997]B==>R̋^B • Cha et al.[2001]̓oCAXrƌA{eBAƂċFɎQlX̑͏@ĉɏĂ͂łAɃoCAX̉\Bɂ炸A̋LڂȂBɁA"most intercessors were known to one author."iFlX̑唼́A҂̂ЂƂɒmĂjƂB==> 炩̃R^NgAdӌjĂ邩ȂB • Cha et al.[2001]͐Tdȃf[^̃}XLOƌA@̋LڂȂB==>f[^₂̉\ےłȂB • Cha et al.[2001]́A҂ɑ΂đ̎҂FǂɂČyĂȂB āAӖȂGɂꂽ̃fUCɂBCha et al.[2001]ł́F • Tier-1 Blcok-A: 5l̊҂ʂ1̎ʐ^ɑ΂āADPmグ悤ɋFBONȂǂ͒m炳ȂB • Tier-2 Blcok-A: Tier-1 Block-A̋F̌ʂ߂悤ɋFBāA"intent that God's will or desire be fulfilled in the life of the patient."ƋFiDPm̌ł͂Ȃj • Block-B/C/DłގԐړIȋF{B • ɁAʂ3l̃O[vA"God's will or desire be fulfilled for the prayer participants in tiers 1 and 2."ƋFiTier-1Tier-2̋FɌʌł͂ȂjB ƂAGȐݒĂBA̗R̐Cha et al.[2001]ɂ͋LڂȂB _̋Lq̂Aɋ^_B... ₵Daniel P. Wirth Flamm[2002]ɂ΁A2҂Daniel P. Wirth͂Ȃ肠₵lłF Daniel Wirth has no medical degree but has published many studies claiming to support the existence of paranormal phenomena. Many of these studies originated from an entity called, "Healing Sciences Research International," an organization that he supposedly headed. This entity's only known address was apparently a Post Office box in Orinda California. Wirth holds an MS degree is in the dubious field of "parapsychology" and also has a law degree. Daniel Wirth͈ẘwʂĂȂA팻ۂ݂̑xƎ咣鑽̌𔭕\ĂB̌̑ADaniel WirthɂƎv"Healing Sciences Research International"ƌĂ΂ĉɂ̂łB̒ĉ̊m̏Z̓JtHjAOrinda̎łBWirth"Sw"Ƃ₵̏CmƖ@wm̊wʂĂB Flamm[2002]ɂ΁AɁAF̌ʂȂǂ𒆐SɒĂB ɁADaniel Wirth́A2004Nɖ{Ƃ͖֌W̍\̋d߂F߂Ă[The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004/06/08]B ==> Fourth superseding indictment. U.S.A. v. John Doe (FBI No. 034055NA9) and Joseph Wirth. U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. Filed Feb 12, 2004. Flamm[2004a]͂̎ɂڏqĂF In October 2002, one year after the Cha/Wirth/Lobo study was published, Mr. Wirth, along with his former research associate Joseph Horvath, also known as Joseph Hessler, was indicted by a federal grand jury (9). Both men were charged with bilking the troubled cable television provider Adelphia Communications Corporation out of$2.1 million by infiltrating the company, then having it pay for unauthorized consulting work. Police investigators discovered that Wirth is also known as John Wayne Truelove. FBI investigators revealed that Wirth first used the name of Truelove, a New York child who died at age five in 1959, to obtain a passport in the mid-1980s. Wirth and his accomplice were charged with thirteen counts of mail fraud, twelve counts of interstate transportation of stolen money, making false statements on loan applications, and five other counts of fraud. A federal grand jury concluded that the relationship between Wirth and Horvath extended back more than twenty years and involved more than $3.4 million in income and property obtained by using false identities. In addition to the Adelphia scheme, Wirth apparently found a way to defraud the federal government by collecting Social Security benefits totaling approximately$103,178 from 1994 to 2003 in the name of Julius Wirth. This man, possibly Daniel Wirth's father, died in 1994 but his benefits continued to be paid after his death via electronic funds transferred to the Republic National Bank.

Cha et al.[2002]ołĂ1N2002N10ɁAWirth͌̌ԂJoseph Horvath, ܂̖Joseph HesslerƂƂɁAAM唆RɂNiꂽ[Associated Press 2002/10/16]B́AP[uerAdelphia Communications Corporationɓ荞ŁAFĂȂRTeBO210hxoƂčꂽBx@WirthAJohn Wayne TrueloveƂĂ邱ƂBFBI{́AWirth1980N㔼΂ɃpX|[g擾̂߂1959N5΂ŎSj[[N̎qTruelove̖OgƂ𖾂炩ɂBWirthƋƎ҂́A13̃[\A12̓񂾋̏BzڑA[ɂČ\A5̂̑̍\őiꂽBAM唆RWirthHorvath̊֌W20NȏɋyсAUgؖɂāA340hȏ̎𓾂Ăƌ_BAdelphiǎȊOɁAWirthJulius Wirth̖19942003Nɍv103,178h̎ЉۏAM{xB̖͂炭1994NɎSê̂ŁANRepublic National BankɐU荞܂ꑱB

Incredibly, at the time of the indictment, Horvath, Wirth's partner, was already in jail, charged with arson for burning down his Pennsylvania house to collect insurance money (10). The FBI investigation revealed that Horvath had previously gone to prison in a 1990 embezzlement and false identity case in California. Interestingly, the investigation also revealed that he had also once been arrested for posing as a doctor in California. It appears that the "doctor" who performed biopsies on human research subjects in Wirth's famous healing studies may have actually been Horvath impersonating a doctor. Horvath was a co-author on another of Wirth's studies in which salamander limbs were amputated and found to grow back more quickly when "healers" waved their hands over the wounds.

MȂƂɁA̎_ŁAWirth̋Ǝ҂łHorvath́Aیx邽߂ɃyVojA̎ɕ΂[Associated Press 2003/2/5]ŁAYɂBFBI̒ŁAHorvath1990NɃJtHjAŉ̂ƋUgؖ̌ŌYɓĂƂ킩B[ƂɁA̒ŁAނJtHjAňtƋU߂ɁAߕ߂ꂽƂ킩BɂAWirth̗LȎÂ̌ɂāA̐̌"t"AtƋUHorvath̉\oĂBHorvath́AؒfꂽTVEEI̎lAÎ҂ƁA葬񕜂邱ƂWirtȟ̋҂B

Both Wirth and Horvath initially pled not guilty to the felony charges, and over the next eighteen months their trial was delayed six times. However, on May 18, 2004, just as the criminal trial of the United States v. Wirth & Horvath was finally about to begin, both men pled guilty to conspiracy to commit mail fraud and conspiracy to commit bank fraud (11). Each man faced a maximum of five years in federal prison and agreed to forfeit assets of more than \$1 million obtained through fraudulent schemes. Horvath, however, was found dead in his jail cell on July 13, 2004, an apparent suicide.

WirtyHorvath͎n߂͖߂咣BāA18ɂ킽āA6ٔꂽBA2004N518ɁAAM{ vs Wirth & Horvath̍ٔn܂Aڂ̓[\Ƌs\ɂĂ̋dF߂B́AAMYōŒ5N̒̉\A\ɂē100hȏ̎YƂɓӂBAHorvath2004N713ɓƖ[ŎEƌ鎀̂ŔꂽB

dӌdvȌɂāA̗Llł́A_̋LqؐMpłȂȂB

SColumbia UniversityDr.Lobo

RESEARCH NEWS: Prayer may influence in vitro fertilization success [2001/09/24]

Prayer may almost double the success rate of in vitro fertilization procedures that lead to pregnancy, according to surprising results from a study carefully designed to eliminate bias. The findings, published in the September Journal of Reproductive Medicine, show that a group of women who had people praying for them had a 50 percent pregnancy rate compared with a 26 percent rate in the group of women who did not. The researchers, led by Dr. Rogerio Lobo, chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, acknowledge the results seem incredible. But they decided to go public with the findings so other scientists could determine if the results were reproducible and, if so, to then identify what factors might be responsible for the improved success rate in the women who received prayers.

TdɃoCAXO悤ɃfUCꂽɂׂʂɂ΁AF͔DPɂȂ̊O󐸂̐ق2{ɂ邩ȂB2001N9Journal of Reproductive MedicineŌ\锭́AFꂽO[v̏̔DP50%ł̂ɑ΂āAFȂO[v̔DP26%BColumbia UniversityPhysicians & SurgeonswObstetrics and GynecologywȒłDr. Rogerio LoboɎwꂽ҂́AʂMȂ̂ƔF߂ĂBA҂͂̌ʂČ\ǂ̊mFAčČłȂAF󂯂̔DP̌ɉĂ̂肪ł悤ɁA\邱ƂɂB
Ƃ낪A҂Œ팻ۉDaniel P. Wirth̍\΂ꂽF
The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004/06/08

Dr. Lobo's secretary, Reba Nosoff, described Dr. Cha as a visiting professor and said he had completed the study without Dr. Lobo's help.

Dr. Lobo̔鏑łReba Nosoff́uDr. Cha͋qłǍDr. LobỏȂɊ܂vƐB

In the study, Americans, Australians, and Canadians prayed for women in South Korea who were unaware that they were part of an experiment. Dr. Cha, said Ms. Nosoff, "brought this study to Dr. Lobo to go over because he could hardly believe the results. Dr. Lobo said it's a good study, and it is proper. So he put his stamp of approval on it, that's all."

Ms. Nosoff's account largely squares with one given in a December 2001 letter to Columbia's vice president for health sciences from an official at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Human Research Protections. The office had apparently investigated the Columbia study because the human subjects had not been informed of their participation. The research-protections office said in the letter that it would not take action against Columbia in part because Dr. Lobo "first learned of the study from Dr. Cha 6-12 months after the study was completed. Dr. Lobo primarily provided editorial review and assistance with publication."

Nosoff鏑̐́AĕیЉȂHuman Research ProtectionsS҂Columbia Universityhealth sciencesSw2001N12̎莆̓eƁA悻vB̌ł́AQ҂ɖړIm炳ĂȂ̂ŁAǂColumbia University̌𒲍Bresearch-protectionsǂ͎莆̒ŁAuDr. LobôƂDr. Cham炳ꂽ̂A612ゾ̂ŁA{ɂĒǋȂBDr. Lobo͎ƂāA_̃FbNƏoł̎vƏĂB
A_FbNƓSBƂADr. Lobo̖[j[X֑̕ƂbB

...

{Flamm[2004a]͎̂悤ɂ܂Ƃ߂ĂF
In summary, one of the authors of the Columbia Cha/Wirth/Lobo study has left the University and refuses to comment, another now claims he did not even know about the study until six months to a year after its completion and also refuses to comment. The remaining author is on his way to federal prison for fraud and conspiracy. Fraud is the operative word here. In reality, the Columbia University prayer study was based on a bewildering study design and included many sources of error. But worse than flaws, in light of all of the shocking information presented above, one must consider the sad possibility that the Columbia prayer study may never have been conducted at all.

܂Ƃ߂ƁAColumbiaCha/Wirth/Lobǒ̒҂̂ЂƂ(Cha)Columbia UniversityĂāARgہBl(Lobo)́Aʂ612ɒmƎ咣ARgہBc̈l(Wirth)́A\߂ŌYsB\͂܂cĂBہAColumbia University̌͌˘f悤ȃfUCɊÂĂāAG[̗v𑽂܂łBAq̏ՌIȏl΁Aׂ肳ɈA܂sȂƂQ킵\lȂ΂ȂȂB

\JԂĂWirthɂāAFlXǗĂƂɂȂĂBAF{eBAȂǑ݂ȂȂB

References

Cha, K.Y., D.P. Wirth, and R.A. Lobo: "Does Prayer Influence the Success of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer?", Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 46, 781-87, 2001

Flamm, B.L.: "Faith Healing by Prayer", Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 5, 47-50, 2002.[2004NM]

Flamm, B.L.: "The Columbia University 'miracle' study: flawed and fraud", Skeptical Inquirer, Sept-Oct, 2004a.

Flamm, B.L.: "The Columbia University "Miracle" Study: A Sign From God?", Freethought Today, 21(9), 2004b.

Wirth DP, Cram JR. The psychophysiology of nontraditional prayer. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 41:68-75, 1994.

Wirth DP, Cram JR. Multisite electromyographic analysis of non-contact therapeutic touch. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 40:47-55, 1993

Wirth DP, Marrett MJ. Complementary healing therapies. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 41:61-67, 1994.

Wirth DP. The significance of belief and expectancy within the spiritual healing encounter. Social Science & Medicine, 41:249-260, 1995.

Wirth DP, Richardson IT, Eidelman WS. Wound healing and complementary therapies: A review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine , 2:493-502, 1996.

Wirth DP, Cram JR, Chang RJ. Multisite electromyographic analysis of therapeutic touch and qigong therapy. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 3:109-118, 1997.

Wirth DP, Cram JR. Multisite surface electromyography and complementary healing intervention: a comparative analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 3:355-364, 1997.

^OFF
posted by Kumicit at 2006/12/03 00:01 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | Prayer&Magic | |

## 2006/12/02

### "Intercessory Prayer"(2/7) ʂ͌oȂ by Matthews et al

lʂ̐ľN̂߂̋F΁A̕ʂ̐ľNɉeyڂƎv"intercessory prayer"ɂāAHines[2003]ǂĂ݂Ă2ڂ́AMatthews et al.[2000]ɂߋ̒BMatthews et al.[2000]͏]Intercessory PrayerŁALӂȋF̌ʂϑłȂ6B...

Joyce and Welldon[1965]͗LӂȌʂ͓ȂBĎ̂悤ɃRgĂF
In the area of intercessory prayer, we see people confusing anecdotal evidence with scientific research. In fact, many people were very eager to tell us why they think that intercessory prayer is therapeutic, but were quite disappointed (and occasionally quite distressed) when we told them that we were looking for evidence from controlled scientific studies.

Collipp[1969]͋F̌ʂ͂̂́AҐ16ƏȂāAvIȗLӐ𔻒fł̂ł͂ȂB

Elkins et al.[1979]قƂǌʂoȂF
prayer produced less tension reduction than relaxation training but only slightly (non) significant more tension reduction than the control condition.

OfLaoire[1997]ʂmF̂ł͂ȂB
Subjects improved significantly on all 11 measures. Agents improved significantly on 10 measures. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of prayer the agents did and their scores on the five objective tests. Agents had significantly better scores than did subjects on all objective measures. Subjects' views of the locus of God's action showed significance in three objective measures. Improvement on four objective measures was significantly related to subjects' belief in the power of prayer for others. Improvement on all II measures was significantly related to subjects' conviction concerning whether they had been assigned to a control or an experimental group. Possible explanations include the placebo/faith effect, the time displaced effect, and extraneous prayer.

Walker et al.[1996]
Intercessory prayer did not demonstrate clinical benefit in the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence under these study conditions. Prayer may be a complex phenomenon with many interacting variables.

Intercessory prayeŕǍɂāAAR[ˑ̎ÂɂāAՏIȗLȂBF́Ȃ݂ɍpĂϐɂ镡GȌۂł邩ȂB

Wirth and Barrett[1994]
Results showed significance for the treated versus the control group but in the opposite direction from that expected.

QƑΏƌQ̊ԂŗLӂȍꂽA҂Ƃ͋t̂̂B

LӂȌʂoByrd[1988]ɂẮATessman and Tessman[2000]Ɠl̔ᔻsĂB

Matthews and Contiɂł

Matthews et al.[2000]̗NɂMatthews et al.[2001]sAIntercessory PrayerɌʂ݂ȂĂB̎ł́A҂6QɕꂽB

• Intercessoy Prayer󂯂ƍꂽ
• ۂɂIntercessoy Prayer󂯂
• ۂɂPositive Visuallization󂯂
• ۂɂ͉Ă炦Ȃ

• Positive Visuallization󂯂ƍꂽ
• ۂɂIntercessoy Prayer󂯂
• ۂɂPositive Visuallization󂯂
• ۂɂ͉Ă炦Ȃ

ʂ́AꂽeɈˑāAIntercessoy Prayer󂯂ƍꂽҌQAPositive Visuallization󂯂ƍꂽҌQԂ悩BAۂɉ󂯂A邢͉Ă炦Ȃɂ́ALӂȍقȂƂ́F
DESIGN: 2 x 3 (expectancy x treatment) factorial study.
fUCF2×3i×Áj

PARTICIPANTS: 95 adult male and female volunteer hemodialysis subjects with end-stage renal disease from an outpatient clinic in Miami, Fla.
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INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment conditions.
FQ҂́A6̏u󋵂̂1܂Ŗ׊tꂽB

RESULTS: Subjects who expected to receive intercessory prayer reported feeling significantly better than did those who expected to receive positive visualization (F1.93 = 5.42; P < .02). No other statistically significant main effects or interactions were found for either expectancy, intercessory prayer, or positive visualization on the remaining dependent measures. Analysis of effect sizes on all dependent measures failed to indicate even a small magnitude of effect for intercessory prayer as contrasted with expectancy on the medical or psychological variables.

Intercessory Prayer󂯂Ɗ҂lX́Apositive visualization󂯂Ɗ҂lXA͂邩ɋCǂȂƕ񍐂Ă(F1.93 = 5.42; P < .02)B̂Ȃ铝vwIɗLӂȉe܂̓C^NV́Ac̏]鏈ułǂ̊҂AIntercessory Prayer邢positive visualizationŌȂBwI邢͐_Iȕϐ̏Ŋ҂ƔׂāASĂ̏]@effect size͂ŁAIntercessory PrayerɂāA킸̉eȂB

CONCLUSIONS: The effects of intercessory prayer and transpersonal positive visualization cannot be distinguished from the effect of expectancy. Therefore, those 2 interventions do not appear to be effective treatments.

_: Intercessory Prayertranspersonal positve visualizatioňʂ́A҂̌ʂƋʂłȂB]āA2̉ɎÌʂ͌ȂB
ڍ׌ʂɂĂConti et al.[2003]QƁB

2000N_ŗLȌʂByrd[1988]...

Matthews et al.[2000]ׂ_ŁAIntercessory PrayerɗLӂȌʂƕ񍐂Ă̂Byrd[1988]BAByrd[1988]Posner[1990]Tessman and Tessman[2000]wE悤ɁAdӌjĂ߁AMłȂBl̎wEMatthews et al.[2000]sĂB

ǂ́AIntercessory Prayer̂̂ɂ͌ʂ͌oȂƂ̂AMatthews et al.[2000,2001]̌_BAނ͂ATCRZs[ے肷̂ł͂ȂMatthews et al.[1998]B

References

Byrd RC.: "Positive therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer in a coronary care unit population." Southern Medical Journal, 81:826-829, 1988.

Collipp PJ.: "The efficacy of prayer: a triple-blind study." Medical Times, 97:201-204, 1969.

Conti JM, Matthews WJ and Sirec SG: "Intercessory Prayer, Visualization, and Expectancy for Patients with Severe Illnesses", annals, winter 20-27, 2003.

Elkins D, Anchor KN, Sandler HM: "Relaxation training and prayer behavior as tension reduction techniques", Behavioral Engineering, 5(3), 81-87, 1979.

Green, W.M.: "Therapeutic Effects of Distant Intercessory Prayer and Patients' Enhanced Positive Expectation on Positive Recovery Rates and Anxiety Levels of Hospitalized Neurosurgical Pituitary Patients: A Double Blind Study", Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(5-B), 2752, 1993.

Hines T:"Pseudoscience and the Paranormal" 2nd edition, pp.378-381, 2003.

Joyce CRB, Welldon RMC.: "The objective efficacy of prayer: a double-blind clinical trial." Journal of Chronic Diseases, 18:367-377, 1965.

Matthews WJ, Conti JM, and Christ T: "God's HMO: Prayer, Faith, Belief, and Physical Well-Being", Skeptic, 8(2), 64-66, 2000.

Matthews WJ, Conti JM and Soreci SG: "The effects of intercessory prayer, positive visualization, and expectancy on the well-being of kidney dialysis patients", Altern Ther Health Med., 7(5), 42-52. 2001[Abstract]

Matthews WJ, Conti JM and Starr U: "Eridosonian Hypnosis: A review of the empirical data", in Current Thinking and Research in Brief Therapy II (ed. Matthews WJ and Edgette J), Philadelphiac Taylor, 1998

OfLaoire S.: "An experimental study of the effects of distant intercessory prayer on selfesteem, anxiety, and depression." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3:38-53, 1997. [PubMed]

Posner GP: "God in the CCU?: A critique of the San Francisco hospital study on intercessory prayer and healing", Free Inequiry, 1990.

Tessman, I. and J. Tessman: "Efficacy of Prayer: A Critical Examination of Claims", Skeptic Inquirer, 24(2), 31-33, 2000.[Rs[]

Walker SR, Tonigan JS, Miller WR, Comer S, Kalich L.: "Intercessory prayer in the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence: a pilot investigation." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3:79-87, 1996.[PubMed]

Wirth DP and Barrett MJ: "Complementary healing therapies", International J. Psychosomatics, 41(1-4), 61-67, 1994.[PubMed]
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