2+2=5 STSの場合

以前も触れたが、STS学者Barry BarnesとSTS学者David Bloorと歴史学者John Henryは、「創造論は疑似科学の汚名を着せられている」と言う。
In some way Gauquelin is fortunate in merely being ignored; many practitioners of 'genuine science' fare no better. Other producers of 'suspect' work which nonetheless has prima facie claims to be scientific encounter active hostility. Parapsychology and creationism, for example, continue to be attacked and stigmatized as pseudo-scientific and the 'pretensions' of their practitioners are often ridiculed. Nor is the way that such fields are discriminated from 'genuinely scientific' enterprises invariably fair and even-handed. Often historically specific criteria of good science are selectively applied, and 'pseudo-sciences' are condemned as such on the basis of tests which most currently accepted genuine sciences would surely fail (Collins and Pinch 1982).


[Barry Barnes, David Bloor, and John Henry: "Scientific Knowledge:A Sociological Analysis", 1996, p.141]


If this supports the view that we could have a convention in which 2 + 2 = 5, then it will be asked: why don't we have it? Why do we say 2 + 2 = 4 rather than 2 + 2 = 5, or all the other things we apparently could say? The objection lurking behind this query is that our current mathematical conventions might be more than 'just' conventions. They might have been selected or reinforced because they 'correspond' to some truth, or because they are informed by some uniquely rational virtue that singles them out. 

The naturalistic response must be to take the question seriously, but to insist that if it has an answer it will not be in terms of our practices 'corresponding' to some mysterious mathematical reality. It will be for some naturalistically explicable psychological and social reasons. Consider, for example, why we might have a preference for what Lakatos called ' weightless' addition (where 2 + 2 = 4), rather than one of the indefinitely large number of alternatives. A sociological answer might appeal to principles of the following kind: to establish a convention for addition means solving a coordination problem, that is, it means getting everybody to adopt the same procedure. Coordination problems are easier to solve if they have a 'salient solution', one that is automatically visible to everyone and where everyone routinely assumes that it is visible to everyone else. Salient solutions are often extreme solutions, ones which lie prominently at the beginning or end of the spectrum of alternatives. Weightless addition may be such an extreme and prominent solution. There are therefore pragmatic reasons connected with the organization of collective action that would favour saying 2 + 2 = 4, rather than 2 + 2 = 5 or 6 or 7 or .... As a convention it is probably easier to organize than the others, and therefore more likely to arise histrically.

[Barry Barnes, David Bloor, and John Henry: "Scientific Knowledge:A Sociological Analysis", 1996, P. 185]

posted by Kumicit at 2013/10/25 09:13 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


理科教科書をめぐるテキサスの攻防 2013年 つづき


米国の進化論教育を守るNational Center for Science Educationによれば、理科教科書の進化論記述を弱めよとするテキサス州教育庁の圧力に、教科書会社たちは抵抗中。
"Materials submitted to the Texas Education Agency and examined by the Texas Freedom Network and university scientists show that publishers are resisting pressure to undermine instruction on evolution in their proposed new high school biology textbooks for public schools," according to a press release issued by the Texas Freedom Network on October 16, 2013. "This is a very welcome development for everyone who opposes teaching phony science about evolution in our kid’s public schools," Texas Freedom Network President Kathy Miller commented.

Texas Freedom Networkが2013年10月16日に出したプレスリリースによれば「教科書出版社たちがテキサス州教育庁に提出した文書を、Texas Freedom Network及び大学の科学者たちが調べたところ、公立学校向けの新版理科教科書で進化論記述を弱体化させようとする圧力に抵抗中であることが分かった。」Texas Freedom Network 代表Kathy Millerは「これは、我々の子供たちの公立学校で進化論についてにニセ科学を教えることに反対する人々にとって、歓迎すべき事態の進展である。かっこと述べた。

Publishers submitted their proposed science textbooks for adoption in Texas in April 2013, and review panels, composed of Texans chosen by the state board of education, were responsible for evaluating them. But, as NCSE previously reported, ideologues on the panels attacked the treatment of evolution and climate change in the textbooks. "The arguments in these reviews are the same discredited claims anti-science activists have pushed for years," commented NCSE's Joshua Rosenau in a joint press release issued by TFN and NCSE.

出版社は 2013年4月に、テキサス州採択教科書候補を提出し、これらの評価はテキサス州教育委員会が選定したテキサス州民からなるレビュー委員会に委ねられた。しかし、既にNCSEが報告したように、イデオローグなレビュー委員たちが、教科書での進化論と気候変動の扱いを攻撃している。「これらのレビュー委員たちの論は、長年にわたり反科学活動家たちが行なってきた信頼できない主張と何ら違わない」と、Texas Freedom NetworkとNCSEの共同プレスリリースで、NCSEのJoshua Rosenauは述べている。

[Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on email Share on print More Sharing Services (2013/19/16) on NCSE]
One is a nutritionist who believes “creation science” based on biblical principles should be taught in the classroom. Another is a chemical engineer who is listed as a “Darwin Skeptic” on the Web site of the Creation Science Hall of Fame. A third is a trained biologist who also happens to be a fellow of the Discovery Institute, the Seattle-based center of the intelligent-design movement and a vice president at an evangelical ministry in Plano, Tex.

一人は、聖書に基づく創造科学を授業で教えるべきだと考えている栄養士である。もう一人は、Creation Science Hall of FameサイトにDarwin Skeptic”として列挙されている化学技術者である。三人目はシアトルを本拠地とするインテリジェントデザイン運動の中心であるDiscovery Instituteのフェローであり、テキサス州Planoの福音主義キリスト教会の副代表でもある生物学者である。

[Creationists on Texas Panel for Biology Textbooks (2013/09/28) on NY Times]

posted by Kumicit at 2013/10/17 09:22 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



米国の進化論教育を守National Center for Science Educationによれば、ミシガン州下院に反"気候変動科学"州法案が登場した。
House Bill 4972, introduced in the Michigan House of Representatives on September 12, 2013, would, if enacted, require that "[t]he state board model core academic curriculum standards shall not be based on the Next Generation Science Standards." Additionally, it would prohibit the state board of education and the state department of education from adopting, implementing, or aligning assessments to the NGSS, and prohibit all state officials and agencies from participating in implementing the NGSS.

The bill's primary sponsor, Tom McMillin (R-District 45), told the Petoskey News-Review (September 18, 2013) that he was primarily worried about "turning over our standards to unelected bodies," but he and cosponsor Greg MacMaster (R-District 105) also acknowledged their concern about the NGSS's inclusion of global warming: "It does get into controversial issues such as man-made global warming as fact,” said McMillin. "That's still somewhat controversial."



州法案の提案者Tom McMillin州下院議員(共和党District 45)は、Pretoskey News-Review(2013/09/19)に対して、「選挙で選ばれていない団体に、我々の基準を合わせる」ことへの懸念をまず述べた。しかし彼と共同提案者Greg MacMaster州下院議員(共和党 District 105)は、懸念がNGSSに地球温暖化が入っていることであることを認めた。「人間起源による地球温暖化のようなコントロヴァーシャルな問題を事実として入れている。これはまだ少しはコントロヴァーシャルである」とMcMillin州下院議員は述べた。

[Anti-NGSS bill introduced in Michigan (2013/09/19) on ncse]
posted by Kumicit at 2013/09/21 00:00 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする


理科教科書をめぐるテキサスの攻防 2013年


もちろん主戦場は生物学や地学であり、米国の進化論教育を守るNational Center for Science Education (ncse)によれば、既に2009年に理科教科書が少し歪められている。
At its March 25-27, 2009, meeting, the Texas state board of education voted to adopt a flawed set of state science standards, which will dictate what is taught in science classes in elementary and secondary schools, as well as provide the material for state tests and textbooks, for the next decade. Although creationists on the board were unsuccessful in inserting the controversial "strengths and weaknesses" language from the old set of standards, they proposed a flurry of synonyms − such as "sufficiency or insufficiency" and "supportive and not supportive" − and eventually prevailed with a requirement that students examine "all sides of scientific evidence." Additionally, the board voted to add or amend various standards in a way that encourages the presentation of creationist claims about the complexity of the cell, the completeness of the fossil record, and the age of the universe.


[A setback for science education in Texas (2009/04/01) on ncse]
Ideologues on official state textbook review teams are attacking the treatment of evolution and climate change in science textbooks under consideration in Texas, charged the Texas Freedom Network and the National Center for Science Education in a joint press release issued on September 9, 2013. "Once again culture warriors on the state board are putting Texas at risk of becoming a national laughingstock on science education," TFN's president Kathy Miller warned.

As the press release explains, documents obtained by the TFN show "that reviewers made ideological objections to coverage related to evolution and climate change in textbooks from at least seven publishers, including several of the nation's biggest publishing houses. Failing to obtain a review panel's top rating makes it harder for publishers to sell their textbooks to school districts or can even lead the State Board of Education (SBOE) to reject the textbook altogether."

「州教科書の公式レビューチームのイデオローグたちは、テキサス州で検討中の理科教科書記載の進化論と気候変動の扱いについて攻撃してきた」と、Texas Freedom NetworkとNational Center for Science Educationの2013年9月9日付の共同プレスリリースで非難した。「州教育委員会の文化戦士たちは、テキサスの理科教育を全米の笑いものになるリスクに晒している」とTFN代表Kathy Millerは警告した。


[Textbooks under attack in Texas (2013/09/09) on ncse]

posted by Kumicit at 2013/09/15 23:20 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする



Scopes Trial (1925)以来、半世紀以上にわたる進化論教育にもかかわらず、創造論支持者が減らないのは何故か?すなわち、"Deficit model"がうまくいかないのは何故か?その疑問が、心理学者たちの関心を惹いて、目的論選好や、科学への抵抗感や、コントロールの回復と否定論や、動機付けられた推論・事実認識などの我々が科学を信じない理由についての科学の探求が進められてきた。







そんな、万難を排して戦った一人に、全力で子供を守ろうとしたHIV否定論者Sophie Brassardがいる。彼女の場合は、まさに最期まで戦い続けた。
posted by Kumicit at 2013/08/15 20:34 | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | ID: General | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする